AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #40 : AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 40.In this episode Despite a more pro-British accommodating-policy - the Sirry Government is unable to satisfy the opposition groups and the King, or to meet adequately the deteriorating economic situation in the country.

To make things worse Rommel's forces are again advancing towards Egypt. Sirry's Government resigned on 2 February I942 amidst demonstrations in Cairo shouting anti-British slogans 'Forward Rommel; Long Live Rommel.' These go on for a day or two while the country remains without a government.

The British Ambassador informs the King via the Chief of the Royal Cabinet that a government headed by Nahhas, leader of the Wafd, should be formed. The King invites Nahhas on 3 February to form a national government. Nahhas declines. In the face of this, the British Ambassador urges the King again through Hasanayn to invite Nahhas to form a Wafdist Government. A hurried meeting of all party and other political leaders at the Palace is taking place on the afternoon of 4 February. Meanwhile the British Ambassador presents an ultimatum to King Faruwq.The assembled politicians, upon hearing the text of the ultimatum, decide to reply to the British Ambassador with a protest signed by all of them. The British ultimatum constitutes an attack upon the independence of Egypt, an interference in its domestic affairs, and a violation of the provisions of the Anglo-Egyptian alliance. 

British Troops headed by General Stone, and a detail of armed officers and tanks storm `Abdiyn Palace. Faced with abdication the King has no choice but to invite  immediately Nahhas to form a Wafdist Government. Such is the episode better known as the 4 February Incident. The real effect of the 4 February Incident on domestic Egyptian politics is as far-reaching


 
 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #39 : In this episode Ahmad Muhammad Hasanayn Chief of the Royal Cabinet urges the King to invite Husayn Sirri, another Independent, to form a Cabinet. This includes Liberals, Independents and Ittihad-Shaabists and takes office on 15 November 1940.

The Saadists, who by then are the only group which openly favor an Egyptian declaration of war on the Axis powers, refuse to participate in this coalition. The Wafd, moreover, persists in its non co-operation policy with these minority governments. 

Sirry's first government lasts eight and a half months, during which time the economic situation in the country deteriorates and the Allied military position in the Western Desert becomes precarious. 
The Germans invade and occupy mainland Greece in April 1941 and Crete soon thereafter. At the same time the Afrika Corps moves into North Africa to assist their Italian allies. Axis air raids on Egypt increase; the food supply situation creates anxiety; hoarding follows. 

A reshuffling in the Sirry Cabinet in July 1941 to accommodate returning Saadist ministers coincides with an improvement in the British military position in Libya


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #38 : In this episode  the first troops of the German Afrika Korps began arriving in Tripoli (Operation Sonnenblume), and the desert war takes a completely different turn.  Repercussions in Egypt of these adverse developments in Britain war fortunes are serious. The government, issues strict orders to Egyptian Army units on the Western Desert frontier not to engage any Italian or German Army units.  Further the government is inclined to declare Cairo an open city, a move unacceptable to the British military authorities. 

In these difficult circumstances the King calls a meeting of all party leaders, which is held on 22 June 1940 at the Palace, to discuss the crisis. A national government is proposed by the Crown but is rejected by Nahhas, leader of the Wafd, for obvious political reasons.  Ali Maher's government resigns and another coalition Cabinet is headed by the Independent Hasan Sabri is formed comprising Saadists, Liberals, National Party members, Ittihad Sha`bists and Independents. 

Ahmad Muhammad Hasanayn is appointed in August 1940 Chancellor of the Royal Cabinet in succession to Ali Maher, who has vacated the post when he became Prime Minister almost a year earlier. The appointment is at the recommendation of the new Prime Minister Hasan Sabri. 

The new pro-British government of Prime Minister Hasan Sabri is short-lived. In November 1940, Sabri while ascending the dais on the opening of the parliament, begins his speech, then stops short. He turns around to face his king, gasps, and then collapses. 

As the ministers of state are gathering around him, a page arrives with a burning taper and puts it in front of Sabri's nose. This isn't like smelling salts to revive him but rather to see if he has any breath left that would cause the candle to flicker or go out. He has none. The doctors report that the prime minister has died of a heart attack. As several ministers carries him off, another minister finishes the king's address: The show goes on. 


 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #37 : In this episode With the beginning of World War II, Egypt again became vital to Britain's defense. Britain had to assure, if not the wholehearted support of Egypt, at least its acquiescence in British military and political policies during the crisis. For its part, Egypt considered the war a European conflict and hoped to avoid being entangled in it. Following the articles of the 1936 treaty  a Royal decree was proclaimed on September 2, 1939, declaring  MARTIAL LAWS. On 10 June 1940, the Kingdom of Italy aligned itself with Germany and declared war upon France and the United Kingdom. British forces based in Egypt were ordered to undertake defensive measures, but to act as non-provocative as possible.  However, on 11 June they began a series of raids against Italian positions in Libya. In addition there had been a large Italian community in Cairo prior to the war. Following the June 10, 1940 declaration of war, nearly all of the Italian men were arrested and nearly all Italian property was seized, leaving the women in poverty.

In response El Duce Benito Mussolini ordered that the Tenth Army  to invade Egypt ..

Initially as one Axis victory succeeded another, Egyptians grew increasingly convinced that Germany and Italy  would win the war. Many were pleased at the prospect of a German victory, not because they were attracted to the Axis ideology, but because they viewed any enemy of their enemy,  as a friend. Meanwhile, the British were determined to prevent an Egyptian-German alliance.

To appease the British, the Egyptian Cabinet amended the Criminal Law by adding articles imposing harsh sentences for crimes committed against the safety of the Country and that of its ALLIES (mainly the British) 


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #36 : In this episode  At the eve of WWII an important change in Egyptian attitudes is finally taking shape.  This was the turn towards Arab nationalism. Egyptians began to accept the proposition that an Arab nation exists and that Egypt is an important part of it. The change began slowly between the wars and gained ground rapidly during World War II. 

The growth of the Arabic press and the birth of broadcasting in Arabic ensured that Egyptians became aware of the  sufferings of their Muslim brethren at the hands of the European imperialists. the violence roused by the British sponsored National Home for the Zionists in Palestine; the Italian repression of al-Sinuwssiy in the early 1930s: all these seconded the efforts of Sati` al-Husriy  and other intellectual publicists for Arab nationalism, and began to turn Egyptian nationalists away from the aim of creating an Egypt for the Egyptians, on the model of a western European democracy, and towards Muslim solidarity and Arab nationalist unity under Egyptian leadership. By the end of the inter-war period the very idea of Egypt for the Egyptians was beginning to give way to the idea of Egypt as part of the Arab nation.


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #35 : In this episode The new King, Faruwq, was only sixteen in the summer of 1936 when he acceded, and a Regency Council acted for him until July 1937. The  Egyptian people welcomed the young king with enthusiasm, and the minority parties rallied round him to exploit his popularity as a counterweight to the waning but still important popularity of the Wafd.  Meanwhile the `ulama'  hailed the young Faruwq as the "Pious King" and branded al-Nahhas Pasha as the "impious politician". 

The Wafd had been unable to capitalize on its unsatisfying interim solution of the British problem, and the King was able to gather round him most of the other elements in Egyptian politics, including the Misr al- Fatah, whose green-shirted youth organization counterweighted the blueshirted para-military section of the Wafd. (see attached history) 

In 1937 al-Nahhas government was in conflict with the 'ulama' on the question of transferring matters of personal status, from the jurisdiction of the religious to that of the national courts. 

The conflict grew and after an internal quarrel had weakened the Wafd, and led to the important defection of al-Nuqrashiy Pasha and Ahmad Mahir, the President of the Chamber, the King felt sure enough of his popularity to dismiss al-Nahhas and dissolve Parliament. His judgment was vindicated when the elections of 1938, held under Constitutional Liberal auspices, reduced the Wafdists to twelve seats in Parliament.


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #34 :In this episode: The treaty was signed on 26 August 1936. It provided for a twenty year military alliance, which limited the British occupation in time and place, and called it by another name. It gave the Royal Air Force the freedom of Egyptian skies and the right to maintain airfields on Egyptian soil. It gave the Royal Navy the use of Alexandria Harbour. Great Britain thus obtained for twenty years the substance of the first two reserved points. The third point had already been conceded to Egypt in principle and the treaty provided for British help in getting the Capitulations abolished. On the fourth point, Egypt recognized the Condominium Agreement, and joined the British in declaring that the welfare of its people should inspire the policies of the two countries in the administration of the Sudan. 

When Nahas Pasha signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty in 1936, the Wafd had objectively acknowledged its failure to achieve the Istiqlal al Tamm (the total independence) which it had demanded in I9I9. But instead of explaining that the facts of power did not permit of real independence, and setting Egypt's face towards the patient acquisition of increased power, Nahas presented the Treaty as a triumph for the national movement. The intellectuals were unconvinced, the Wafdists' political opponents were contemptuous, and Egyptian internal political struggles continued unabated. In the aftermath of the 1936 treaty, the reputation of the Wafd, as the pure expression of the nation's determination to shake free from the British control was irreconcilably tarnished. 

The political history of Egypt from 1923 to 1936 thus became a three sided contest between the Palace, the British and the Wafd. The aim of the Palace was to destroy the constitution and to restore the autocracy of the ruling family. The aim of the British was to obtain consent to the reserved points from a constitutionally legitimate Egyptian Government. The aim of the Wafd was to abolish the reserved points and to limit the powers of the King. The interest of each corner of the triangle was thus sometimes closer to the first and sometimes to, the second of the other two corners, and political alliances were therefore short-lived. 

Also Included in this episode:  1) Politics and Diplomacy: the Diary of Sir Miles Lampson.1935-37.  2) The Arabic text of the 1936  treaty  & commentary by historian `Abd al-Rahman al-Raf`iy. The years of the Youth rebellion by Prof. Yonan Labib Rizq. 3)  The Egyptian  Government's agreement with the Suez Canal Company. 4) Benito Mussolini and the Ethiopian war. 5) Alexandria in the 1930's. 


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #33 : In this episode.The treaty was signed on 26 August 1936. It provided for a twenty year military alliance, which limited the British occupation in time and place, and called it by another name. It gave the Royal Air Force the freedom of Egyptian skies and the right to maintain airfields on Egyptian soil. It gave the Royal Navy the use of Alexandria Harbour. Great Britain thus obtained for twenty years the substance of the first two reserved points. The third point had already been conceded to Egypt in principle and the treaty provided for British help in getting the Capitulations abolished. On the fourth point, Egypt recognized the Condominium Agreement, and joined the British in declaring that the welfare of its people should inspire the policies of the two countries in the administration of the Sudan. 

When Nahas Pasha signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty in 1936, the Wafd had objectively acknowledged its failure to achieve the Istiqlal al Tamm (the total independence) which it had demanded in I9I9. But instead of explaining that the facts of power did not permit of real independence, and setting Egypt's face towards the patient acquisition of increased power, Nahas presented the Treaty as a triumph for the national movement. The intellectuals were unconvinced, the Wafdists' political opponents were contemptuous, and Egyptian internal political struggles continued unabated. In the aftermath of the 1936 treaty, the reputation of the Wafd, as the pure expression of the nation's determination to shake free from the British control was irreconcilably tarnished. 

The political history of Egypt from 1923 to 1936 thus became a three sided contest between the Palace, the British and the Wafd. The aim of the Palace was to destroy the constitution and to restore the autocracy of the ruling family. The aim of the British was to obtain consent to the reserved points from a constitutionally legitimate Egyptian Government. The aim of the Wafd was to abolish the reserved points and to limit the powers of the King. The interest of each corner of the triangle was thus sometimes closer to the first and sometimes to, the second of the other two corners, and political alliances were therefore short-lived. 

Also Included in this episode:  1) Politics and Diplomacy: the Diary of Sir Miles Lampson.1935-37.  2) The Arabic text of the 1936  treaty  & commentary by historian `Abd al-Rahman al-Raf`iy. The years of the Youth rebellion by Prof. Yonan Labib Rizq. 3)  The Egyptian  Government's agreement with the Suez Canal Company. 4) Benito Mussolini and the Ethiopian war. 5) Alexandria in the 1930's. 


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #32 : In this episode: The apparent failure of the liberal-constitutional forces led by the Wafd in dealing with the so-called national issue became apparent with the Sidqi period during which a strong, repressive government ruled in conjunction with the monarch, kept party leaders particularly those of the Wafd  outside the normal channels of political activity. It hardened the lines of opposition, of personal and group antipathies among the ranks of the establishment. It also forced the eventual compromise of those original supporters of constitutional government in the Liberal and Wafd parties as a price either for sharing in, or coming to, power. Such behavior in turn further alienated many followers of the Wafd from its leadership. 

King Fouad replaced Sidqi's cabinet, first with Abdel Fattah Yayha Pasha then by Mohammed Tawfiq Nasim who was well known for his close relationship with the occupying Power.  Pressures for the restoration of the 1923 constitution then became too strong for the King to resist. 

Meanwhile students, professionals and intellectuals, as well as simple city and rural masses could now more readily be attracted by new nationalist movements and this inevitably tended to strengthen particularly new organizations such as the Muslim Brethren and Young Egypt.


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #31: In this episode:   Only a day after forming the new cabinet, the prime minister issued an edict postponing the opening of the Wafdist-majority parliament for a month. Things were not proceeding as Sidqi had planned. True, order prevailed as he read out the decree postponing the opening of parliament. However, instead of remaining silent, as he had hoped, the members of parliament responded by reciting their oath "to defend the constitution with all the power, money and spirit of sacrifice I possess". Meanwhile the new government responded  by pledging to "instill peace of mind among the people and to work towards ensuring public order and safety by force if necessary. Thus started Sidqi's extremely controversial and oppressive political rule for the next three years.

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #30: In this episode: Sir Percy, the British high commissioner to Egypt, had arrived in the country when Muhammad Mahmuwd was prime minister. Mahmuwd had succeeded in hammering out an agreement with London over various aspects of the British military presence and level of diplomatic representation in Egypt. However, the British felt that any such agreement with Cairo needed popular backing which only the Wafd Party could provide. Muhammad Mahmuwd Pasha was compelled to step down and elections were held, bringing to power a Wafd government headed by Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #29: In this episode:  Mohammed Mahmoud Pasha, seeks to take control of the Wafd Party from within. Grasping the opportunity of Saad Zaghloul's death in 1927 and the ensuing struggle over the presidency of the Wafd Party, he presents himself as the most deserving contender.  However he loses the presidency to Mustafa El-Nahhas. Meanwhile  the King, in consultation with the British High Commissioner, choses him to form a new Cabinet after firing El-Nahhas. 

Mohammed Mahmoud Pasha was the only government man to have dared to suspend the entire constitution and declare that he would rule with firmness to put an end to the muddled conditions resulting from partisan rule. The speeches he gave during this period, which were later collected in the book "The strong hand", indicate the man's insistence on overlooking constitutional rule. This is exactly what took place in 1928 and 1929. 


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #28: In this episode:  On 15 March, King Fouad summoned al-Nahhas and officially charged him with forming a new government. Following his audience at the palace, the Wafd leader headed directly to Bayt al-'Ummah (the House of the People) where he held separate meetings with each of his party colleagues "to solicit their advice on the composition of the new cabinet and who they would recommend in the event some of the current ministers decided to step down."  As has always been the case on such occasions, there was a spate of rumors over the composition of the forthcoming cabinet. 

A testimony to El-Nahhas' strength of character was his  success in stitching together a government in only two days. The royal decree announcing the new cabinet was issued on Saturday 17 March 1928 amidst great fanfare as expressed in the flood of congratulatory letters and telegrams that poured into Bayt al-'Ummah


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #27 . In this episode: Tharwat Pasha accepts to form a Cabinet on condition that his Government would not be subjected to harsh criticism by the elected members of the House, concerning the Government relations with London and that the Parliamentary deliberation of the Laws pertaining to the Egyptian Army and those regulating the appointment of villages Mayors would be indefinitely postponed . 

 In 1928 the Egyptian parliament proposes the creation of of the Royal Egyptian Army Air Force (REAAF). 


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #26 . In this episode : The political parties formed a joint committee in January I926 to co-ordinate their electoral policies. They first decided to boycott the elections held under the indirect process, and to hold a national congress instead. 

POLITICAL TURMOIL: By February the government, under pressure, reverted to direct elections which were held in May. Again the Wafd secured a majority of the seats (I65); but Sa`d  Zaghluwl was unwilling to take on the premiership as this would have brought him immediately in direct confrontation with the difficult problem of British policy in Egypt. Instead, he agreed to a coalition government with the Liberals headed by their leader Adli Yakan which was formed in June. Parliament was convened and Sa`d was again elected Speaker of the House. 

In its first session this Parliament abrogated all legislation passed when the House was not in session since December 1924; decided to deposit all local and provincial government funds in the new Bank Misr to boost local, native enterprise; passed a General Amnesty Bill for political crimes committed during the period December I924-April I926. 

The second session of this Parliament reconvened in November I926 and was occupied with the control of cotton cultivation, loans to cotton growers, and co-operative law projects. While discussing industrialization plans in April 1927, Adli resigned. 

A new crisis involving British interests cropped up only weeks after Sarwat's Government took office over the financing and control of the Egyptian Army. Deputies recommended that the British Sirdar of the Army be replaced with an Egyptian, and to discontinue the membership of the British Inspector-General on the Army Council. 

GUNBOAT DIPLOMACY: The British reaction on 29 May 1927 was swift and arrogant, backed up by the dispatch of a British fleet detachment to Alexandria. Egypt was forced to extend the British Inspector-General's service for another five years, and agreed to enter into new negotiations with Britain.


 
 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #25:  In this episode : Sir Lee Stack Pasha was assassinated in Cairo on 19 November 1924 The British reaction was immediate and severe. In his ultimatum to the Egyptian Government, the High Commissioner demanded, among other things, the withdrawal of all Egyptian Army units from the Sudan. He also informed them of the plan to extend the irrigated area in the Sudan by some 300,000 feddans.

 When Saad Zaghlul could not accept all the demands in the ultimatum, the British Army occupied the Alexandria Customs House. Saad Zaghlul Pasha resigned on 23 November and Ahmad Ziwar Pasha, first President of the Senate, formed a new government which acceded unconditionally to the British ultimatum. 

A stronger Law of Associations was decreed in October to which all opposition political parties objected. The dissolved Wafdist Parliament met privately in the Continental Hotel to protest all these measures and to press the Government to reinstate constitutional life. Popular feeling was further aroused when the Ziwar Government gave in to the Italian territorial claims over the Jaghbub oasis on the LibyanEgyptian frontier. This was a centre of Sanusi activities and thus carried Islamic overtones. 

On the positive side the Cabinet allocated the amount of three millions pounds for the “JABAL AL -'AWLIYA’A” dam project and two millions for the “NAG-HAMADI” dam. 


 
 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #24 . In this episode :  An Egyptian Delegation headed by Saad Pasha proceeded to London and held  three sessions before returning empty handed to Egypt.  The Egyptians submitted to their British counterparts their non-negotiable demands, which were:  the evacuation of British troops, the withdrawal of the British Financial and Judicial Advisors, the right of Egypt to run its Foreign Policy according to its interests and its right to be the sole protector of the foreign subjects living within its boundaries; any other problems between the two Countries could be negotiable.

 
 
"THE YACOUBIAN BUILDING" .The controversial, best-selling Egyptian novel, "The Yacoubian Building" describes a country that is corrupt, unfair and thuggish. It follows the lives of residents, both rich and poor, of the Yacoubian, an actual apartment building in downtown Cairo. In essence, the novel airs Egypt's dirty laundry, from sex, religion, and greed, to abject poverty, hypocrisy, oppression and rampant corruption of Egypt's contemporaneous society.  In the footsteps of Naguib Mahfuwz, `Ala' al-'Aswaniy is essentially disturbing the rock of our polite society to uncover beneath it an ugly world teeming with parasites.  It is a cruel world where ordinary Egyptians find themselves hopelessly trapped.  While many barely survive in it, there are those who thrive in such an environment by preying upon the weak and the vulnerable elements of the society. Yesterday's whispers are now a loud burst of poignant screams in the wide open.  Despite that there is a silver lining, in the character of those whose good breeding still survives, and the manners and humanity that go with it. If you haven't read the book and seen the movie, I whole heatedly suggest both to you

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #23 . In this episode : The main and most important achievement of Yahya Ibrahim pasha Cabinet was the publication, on April 19, 1923, of the new Constitution which declared that Egypt would be, from that date on, an Independent Nation and a Constitutional Monarchy with separate Executive, Legislative and Judiciary Powers.  Later, that same King would abolish the1923 Constitution rewriting one to his own liking. 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #22 . In its bid for independence, a defiant Egypt threw the occupying power, Britain, into a quandary for more than two months by leaving the country without a government. Independence negotiations failed in December 1921 and the cabinet then in office, led by `Adliy Yakan, resigned in protest. The British cast about for a replacement but no Egyptian leader would agree to form a government unless the British yielded on the independence issue.

Following Yakan's resignation the British protectorate authorities found themselves stymied in their efforts to form a new government. They had invited `Abd al-Khaliq Tharwat to form a new cabinet, but their second deportation of Sa`d Zaghluwl made it virtually impossible for Tharwat to accept unless the British met a number of conditions. As tensions mounted between the Foreign Office and Allenby, who was more conciliatory towards moderate nationalist demands, Allenby was summoned to London to discuss possible solutions to the challenge posed by Egypt. 


 
 
THE OTHER WORLD IN ANCIENT EGYPT.What has happened to Egyptology in the century and a half since Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphs, back at a time when one studied ancient Egypt only for confirmation of biblical attitudes?   The result has been the partial recovery, during the past 150 years, of the languages, histories, and cultures of the high civilizations of the ancient Near East; and these enable  the reader to study and understand a country like Egypt from its own documents and monuments and from its own point of view.  This first essay deals with "The Other World" theme in ancient Egyptian literature. A fascinating subject which is guaranteed to intrigue many  Modern Egyptians as they delve into  "The nature of the beyond " this time, strictly viewed expressed by their ancestors.   The subject matter is riveting for any Arab speaking audience when it finds how intimate its rich native tongue is, with that of Ancient Egypt. A linguistic fact that has been given a lip service so far, and never fully explored

 
10 MORE MINUTES..! A SHORT STORY IN ARABIC BY MAIE HAMDY . The Egyptian Chronicles is proud to announce the debut of  Maie Hamdy, an Egyptian writer and a economist by profession, to our Magazine: Her first literary contribution to our magazine is a short story in Arabic entitled: 10 More Minutes..!, which was written in 2004.  Maie's style is guaranteed to keep you in suspense. 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #21 In this episode # 21: Fierce demonstrations erupts as a result of excluding the Wafd from the negotiations, particularly in the Cairo, Alexandria and the large cities of the Country; a strong feeling of animosity and hatred was directed toward all those who contradicted Zaghloul Pasha's call for independence.Winston Churchill, who was then the British Minister of Colonies, declared that any negotiation with Egypt would be pointless since, as the events in Alexandria show, the presence of British troops in Egypt was vital for the protection of Foreign lives and British interests and their evacuation was made impossible by the local animosity.  Mr. Churchill ‘s declaration united the Cabinet and the Wafd in protest and seemed to be a prelude for the failure of the Negotiations before they even started. In addition : The saga of  "The Awakening of Egypt" ( Nahdat Misr), arguably the country's most famed statue, embodies, perhaps more than any other symbol, the national liberation struggle. Sculpted by Mahmoud Mukhtar in 1928, the work, which stands to this day, specifically epitomizes the spirit of the 1919 Revolution. 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #20  In this episode # 20:The Egyptian Cabinet headed by Nasim Pasha agreed to encourage the erection of more constructions by granting loans and facilities to the building contractors and particularly to the Heliopolis Company which promised to build six hundreds building more than planned. The Milner Commisssion: Milner's recommendation that Egypt be granted a form of independence was rejected by the Cabinet, leading to Milner's resignation in 1921 

 
WHAT IS CAUSING THE WATER SHORTAGE IN THE NORTHERN DELTA? -- BY ISHI.NAN The whole situation began a few years back with the building of a road (Tariyq da'iriy) looping the borders of Lake Burullus . Until recently the main economic activities were fishing and agriculture. With access to the new road which stretches some 150 miles (240 km) from Alexandria to Port Said, and looping the southern shores of al-Burullus as well, many private developers began to expand and built private summer resorts for their affluent customers. 

 
IN THE LAND OF MIYAZAKI - THE ADVENTURES OF AN EGYPTIAN EXPATRIATE IN JAPAN--BY SAYYED MOHAMED. In Japanese Miyazaki means "Land facing the Sun." It is by this name that Miyazaki is mentioned in Japanese history, as the cradle of Japanese civilization.  Sayyed Mohamed, an Egyptian expatriate who resides in Japan, takes us on a cultural tour of this enigmatic land. His unique account, from an Egyptian perspective, gives us a rare insight into the culture and traditions of Japan and compares them to our Egyptian culture.  His article also includes breathtaking photographs he took of this fairyland. 

 
"THINGS... I LOVE TO DO" -- " A SHORT STORY BY DR. MOHAMED NAGUIB `ABDALLAH {IN ARABIC}.

 
THE NAVIGATOR  -- PART FOUR-- THE BAIT--A SHORT STORY BY DR. IBRAHIM M. ABDEL MOTTALEB   "The police officer came to me and said: “Sir, you were driving at 89 mph, which is too high for 65 mph speed limit.” As usual, I pretended that I did not know that I was speeding. He said politely, “give me you driver license and the car registration.” I gave him the paper, and he went to his car to prepare the ticket. I looked at the passing cars and saw the drivers I passed looking at me with big smiles on there faces......" 

 
THE NAVIGATOR  -- PART THREE-- SUICIDAL NAVIGATOR--A SHORT STORY BY DR. IBRAHIM M. ABDEL MOTTALEB  " I adjusted myself in the comfortable seat and declared: “Today no more worries about direction; I have the ultimate authority on this matter, my beloved Navigator.” The navigator continued instructing me: “turn right, turn left, go ahead,” and so on. I obeyed with no questions asked. I looked at the cars on the street and felt pity for them; they don’t know what they are missing." 

 
THE NAVIGATOR  --  PART TWO -- LOOSE JOINTS- A SHORT STORY BY DR. IBRAHIM M. ABDEL MOTTALEB  " I checked Yahoo-Auto to find a car that meets my requirements. To my delight, I found the car of my dream in the Boston area.  The car I found was Mercedes Benz E500 sports with 4matic (AWD), keyless go, distronic, and navigation..........."

 
THE NAVIGATOR  --  PART ONE-- HOWLING DRIVER-- A SHORT STORY BY DR. IBRAHIM M. ABDEL MOTTALEB  "Dreaming! That what I was doing when I opened my eyes to discover to my horror that I am only about 6 feet from the rear of a slowing car in front of me. The breaks light of that car was illuminating bloody red, and the left hand side signal was blinking. The car was about to turn left on the next street, just 10 feet away.........." 

 
THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME BY ISHINAN.   What is happening in Gaza is a symptomatic of a greater picture of the ongoing civil war in the Muslim world. This struggle is fanned by constant US intervention on a massive scale to shore up the hard-pressed  "moderate regimes". The situation is reminiscent of the major role played by the United States in China during World War II when it emerged as a major meddler in Chinese affairs.

 
THE OUTER LIMITS OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS -- THE CASE OF "SERA" BY -- BY ISHINAN  How a  Classical Arabic term was borrowed into Old French as_ al-Seir_ meaning soir or evening-

 
THE OUTER LIMITS OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS --ETYMOLOGY OF MISR BY ISHINAN-- BY ISHINAN-Semitic Linguists, aware of the linguistic degeneration of the Hebrew-Aramaic languages, have always referred to Classical Arabic to explain the various Semitic roots and their etymologies.  Clues from Ancient Afro-Asiatic languages reveal decisively the true etymology of Misr .

 
THE OUTER LIMITS OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS --THE CASE OF ANIMAL-- BY ISHINAN- A hilarious Medieval Latin entry for the term anima/animal, which is of Arabic origin. 

 
THE OUTER LIMITS OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS -- THE CASE OF "AETHEL" BY ISHINAN--Something to share with the group about this wonderful and mysterious thing called - language.It has to do with the evolution of language in general, but most importantly, our mother tongue, Classical Arabic, which has played a very important role in the evolution of many languages and institutions. The following investigation entitled "Aethel"- will help illustrate this point. 

 
THE OUTER LIMITS OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS -- THE CASE OF "SORE" BY -- BY ISHINAN-A category of words in Old English which defies the logic that  Arabic loaned  terms reached English through other European languages, especially Spanish and Italian and not necessarily directly. 

 
THE OUTER LIMITS OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS -- THE CASE OF "SEARING" -- BY ISHINAN-A category of words in Old English which defies the logic that  Arabic loaned  terms reached English through other European languages, especially Spanish and Italian and not necessarily directly. 

 
THE OUTER LIMITS OF HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS -- A RESPONSE TO A CHALLENGING REQUEST-- BY ISHINAN-
Raising raise the bar by proposing a new challenge, which is to use  paradigms made up of homonyms instead of synonyms in English and then try to find if possible, their cognates in Arabic.  The argument  help demonstrating beyond any reason of doubt an undeniable connection.  The following paradigm #1  from the Old English (Old Anglo-Saxon) is compared to the Classical Arabic.

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-EPISODE 19--In Episode 19, Wahba Pasha 's Cabinet was constituted on November 20, 1919. Most of its Ministers were members of the previous Cabinet who agreed to fully collaborate with the Milner Commission.  On that same day of its formation, Lord Allenby announced the forthcoming arrival of the Milner Commission, which explains the wave of unpopularity and defiance with which was met the formation of that Cabinet.

 
HOW TO AVOID ELECTION FRAUD IN EGYPT BY ISHINAN
A proposal meant for "future" Egyptian governments for a computerized voter sensory tracking system with video surveillance web cameras positioned inside and outside every polling station. The web cameras allow instantaneous public scrutiny via the internet. 

 
AL-NADIYDAH, TOWARDS A NEW  PROPOSED EGYPTIAN PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM BY  ISHINAN - A proposed system of representation, which I call: al-Nadiyday (Peerocracy),  naturally reflecting the majority interests of the Egyptian people  while  effectively denying the  traditional disproportional powerfu groups from manipulating the system to their advantage.   Thus stamping out the Lobby phenomenon from thriving in the Parliament system in Egypt.

 
PARALLEL UNIVERSE (EPISODE # 7) : ALTERNATE ETYMOLOGIES FOR "HARM" BY ISHINAN: The investigation  deals with the concept of “harm" and its four synonymous terms:  ail, ill, daeru (obsolete), & injury) in both the Arabic and English languages. A comparative glossary of various terms standing for "harm" in Arabic and English provides us with a well defined and astonishingly etymological match in five instances.  Also included an important segment on the concept "HARM" in the law in western civil codes and Islamic Jurisprudence. The difference is crucial in understanding what both these legal systems stand for in each culture.

 
PARALLEL UNIVERSE (EPISODE #6) : ALTERNATE ETYMOLOGIES FOR "HAZE" BY ISHINAN:   The investigation  involves the tormenting and the humiliation of others through verbal ridicule, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion known as Hazing. The research investigates the roots of the word "Haze" in the English Language.

 
PARALLEL UNIVERSE (EPISODE # 5) : ALTERNATE ETYMOLOGIES FOR "ASSAULT" BY ISHINAN: Statistically the use of the word "assault" in daily news is quite staggering. When the media reports on international news, political topics or social ones, the use of the word assault seems always to dominate the headlines.  Hence, for our purpose, the word "assault" is naturally the topic of investigation in Episode V of Parallel Universe: Alternate Etymologies.  This investigation will show how the word "assault"  and its related terms such as "assail" and "salient" were directly borrowed from the Classical Arabic language. 

 
 
PARALLEL UNIVERSE (EPISODE # 4) : ALTERNATE ETYMOLOGIES FOR "KILL" BY ISHINAN:-A survey of daily news shows that the subject of killing is one of the most prolific topic dealt with in the media.  This does not come as a surprise since in terms of frequency, the word "Kill" ranks 657th of the commonly used words in English.  The word "Kill" made its first appearance and was introducedin to Middle English in  "The King of Tars" in 1330. A story which took place in Syria during the Crusades.  .  This investigation will show how the word "Kill" was directly borrowed from the Classical Arabic language

 
 
"ADVERTISING AS A CULTURAL ARTIFACT"  BY ISHINAN -Advertising is not only a communication tool between companies and their customers, but also a social actor and a cultural artifact. Many of the products advertised during the 1940's in  Egypt  reflected a cosmopolitan society transplanted in Egypt. For the few elitist socialites, the period was heaven on earth; to the majority of Egyptians, the same period  represented a troubling time, full of deprivation and utter humiliation. 

 
"TALES OF THE FALLEN" BY ISHINAN -Our forum spoke of the recent execution of Saddam Husayn in Baghdad. This prompted the idea to introduce "Tales Of The Fallen" depicting two executions of head of states. One from the West,: King Charles I of England; and a parallel theme  from our East, that of the hanging of Saddam Husayn, the late former President of Iraq.  Our first tale is from one of the most troubled periods of British history.  Charles I  was convicted for high treason. Three days intervened between his sentence and his execution which he faced on Tuesday, January 30, 1649 at Whitehall.

Our second tale is from Iraq, where dark forces have invaded the country and occupied it for the last 4 years.  A defiant Saddam Husayn is put on trial. All along, he challenged the legality of the proceedings, which he said were brought about by  the "invasion forces". In the predawn hours of Saturday 30 December, 2006, Saddam Husayn  receives the grim news of his impending execution scheduled for the start of `iyd al-Adha
 


 
 
PARALLEL UNIVERSE (EPISODE # 3) : ALTERNATE ETYMOLOGIES FOR "FATIGUE" BY ISHINAN: Fatigue is a common health complaint. It is, however, one of the hardest terms to define, and a symptom of many different conditions. While fatigue means lacking energy or strength and is a very common symptom,  the term in English may be used as a synonym for harassing.

 
PARALLEL UNIVERSE (EPISODE # 2) : ALTERNATE ETYMOLOGIES FOR HIT & HURT BY ISHINAN: Synonyms of our main theme, "HARASS" in episode # 2 may include all those outbursts of vengeance or other evil dispositions that are practiced in times, or under circumstances, when liberties are absent and where the oppressed and the weak are systematically subjected to abuse. 
The references to harassment in this episode, give a detailed and graphic picture of the subject matter: These involve the notions of hit and hurt which are all synonymous to harass, and therefore are logically the subject of this etymological investigation in this episode.  The comparison between the above English terms and their corresponding Classical Arabic terms are unexpectedly surprising! 

 
PARALLEL UNIVERSE: ALTERNATE ETYMOLOGIES FOR HARASS & HARSH BY ISHINAN: Is there a probability for the existence of a parallel universe mimicking or diverging from our own? Is this a theory which could be eminently testable even if it contained unobservable entities within it? 

 
 THE "WILSONIAN DEMOCRACY"  AND EGYPT. W hen it comes to writing history, it is virtually impossible to find anyone who believes that there is such a thing as “objective” historical truth. All history is somebody's opinion.

Wilson’s presidency makes a compelling case that Woodrow Wilson was America’s worst president and an unmitigated disaster for Egypt and  the world."


 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #18  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-EPISODE --n Sultan Ahmad Fouad decided, with Allenby ‘s approval, to call on Mohammad Saeed Pasha to form a new Cabinet.  The objective of the new Cabinet was to calm the situation in the Country by whatever means! Meanwhile Sa`d Zaghlul and his fellow internees, reinforced by other Wafd leaders, were allowed to proceed to the Peace Conference at Paris,   Zaghlul and his followers aree met in Paris with calculated snubs, and the British authorities gave maximum publicity in Egypt to the American decision. In the eyes of educated Egyptians the British had once again given proof of their inveterate hostility and duplicity towards Egypt. 

 
ENGLISH "RICH" AND ARABIC  "RIYSH" :   Two expressions introduced by two commentators of a thread :  Athila:`ala ra'suh riyshah; and  Khaled Hassan's  allusion to the ultra RICH   inadvertly conspiring together to  create an unexpected and thrilling linguistic link.

 
THE TWILIGHT OF MUBARAK'S MIDDLE EAST DIPLOMACY --- BY ISHINAN.  The message addressed to the  Palestinians and the Arab world is loud and clear:  Either you do as we tell you or else you will suffer.  A peculiar brand of democracy clumsily disguised for a total hegemony of the west on the Middle East. 

 
THE WORLD OF NA`ASAH. The following essay  is not about validating whether or not an Egyptian woman should wear the veil.  Rather, it is about the true reality of the life of a typical Egyptian Fallahah, living at the turn of the last century.  Hopefully, her harsh living conditions and abject poverty will illuminate our understanding of this complicated subject matter. 

 
 WHAT IS REALLY BEHIND THE CURTAIN? A  RESPONSE FROM AHMED HUSSEIN ABOUT THE ISRAELI NUCLEAR PROGRAM.

 
WHAT IS REALLY BEHIND THE CURTAIN? A  RESPONSE FROM EMAD AFIFI - & EGYPT NUCLEAR CHRONOLOGY- 

 
PALESTINIANS FORCED TO SCAVENGE FOR FOOD ON RUBBISH DUMPS - All across the Muslim world, the month of Ramadan is awaited with great anticipation. Unfortunately, this will not be the case for the Palestinians.  Especially those caged in the Gaza strip, squeezed between a ruthless Israeli occupation; and a neighbor, who was once a great compassionate brother, now turned into a callous surrogate jailer.

 
A TALE OF TWO FUNERALS BY ISHINAN - A great man has passed away. For many decades Nagiyb Mahfuwz has entertained us with his literary masterpieces.  His accomplishments have raised our heads high among the world giants . Sadly, the lack of enthusiasm and apathy displayed by the sparse crowd who attended his funeral leaves us speechless. 

 
A SHORT EGYPTIAN STORY: WHERE THE PIGEONS DON'T FLY BY DR. MOHAMED NAGUIB (IN ARABIC).

 
AKHIR HAGAH --A POEM BY HADIY MURAD (IN ARABIC).

 
"FIY `IYD MILADAK AL-KAM WA SAB`IYN" --A POEM BY AHMAD FUW'AD NIGM (IN ARABIC). If the soul of Egypt is to be saved, then the poet Ahmad Fuw'ad Nigm must be the chosen one leading the way.  His latest poetry entitled "Fiy `Iyd Miladak al-kam wa Sab`iyn" is posted therein to inspire you

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA.   EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-EPISODE 17--On the 8th, Sa`d Pasha Zaghluwl, and with him Hamd Pasha al-Basil, Isma`iyl Pasha Sidqiy, and Muhammad Pasha Mahmuwd, were arrested. The following morning they were taken to Port Sa`iyd and placed on board a British destroyer Caledonia, to be deported to Malta. The arrest of these four men set the conflagration alight and the 1919 Revolution began. y the end of the crisis, 1,000 Egyptians were killed, 1,600 wounded; 27 British soldiers killed, 70 wounded; and four British civilians killed.

 
ONSLAUGHT OF THE GOVERNMENT ON THE JUDICIA
We are all following with great interest the Judiciary's struggle to establish its independence. The present clash is not, by any means, an unusual occurence in Modern Egyptian history. 

Actually, there was never a time when our government was not involved in the attempt to dedicate itself to the subversion of our judiciary system.  The following episode relates events that took place between January 1950 and the summer of 1951.  At that time, `Abd al-Razzaq al-Sanhuwriy Pasha, President of the State Council, and Muhammad Mahmuwd `Azmiy Bey the Attorney General were a cause celeb as they tried to thwart the onslaught of the ruling Wafd party against the Judicial. 


 
A CRITICAL CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW OF THE UPCOMING PROPOSED PALESTINIAN REFERENDUM BY RUWLAN SARHAN & DR. `ISAM `ABDIYN

 
THUGERY ( AL-BALTAGAH) : A NATIONAL PASTIME, THEN AND NOW. There are no words to describe the shameful display of uncontrolled thugery caught on TV, mobile phones and digital cameras.   I have taken the liberty of posting the story of 16 women's ordeal in 1932 to acquaint you with this sad trend which appears to be deeply engrained in our short political life. 

 
GATEWAY TO THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT BY DR. JANO EL-KADY -- THE LATE PERIOD ( EPISODE # 15). In this episode the centuries under discussion break down into four clearly defined phases: the Saite Dynasty (664-525 BC); the First Persian Occupation (525-404 BC); a period of independence (404-343 BC); and the Second Persian Occupation.

 
EGYPT'S DESTINY BY LIWAA' MUHAMMAD NAGIYB --   ( EPISODE - THIRTEEN) , CHAPTER TWO : "A SON OF THE NILE". In this episode, the Treaty of 1936, as it came to be known, terminated the British occupation of all but a small portion of Egypt the Suez Canal Zone, where a maximum of 10,000 soldiers, including 400 fliers, were to be based for the treaty's duration. The treaty also abolished the legal immunities and special privileges enjoyed by Britons and other foreigners in Egypt and the discriminatory restrictions to which Egyptians had been subjected in Sudan. It reduced the status of the British High Commissioner to that of an ambassador and established a British military mission to train and equip the Egyptian Army to the extent necessary to ensure the defense of Egypt without further assistance from the British Army except "in the event of war, imminent menace of war or apprehended international emergency." 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #16  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-- HUSAYN RUSHDY THIRD CABINET WITH APPENDIX XVI : MUHAMMAD FARIYD'S STOCKHOLM MEMORANDUM OCTOBER 17. PRELUDE TO UPRISING: During WWI, the cotton boom primarily enriched the big and medium landowners who formed less than ten per cent of the cultivators but owned nearly 75 per cent of the cultivated area. In the towns,  a small class  profiteered from the presence of Allied troops. Yet because the Government was devoid of any social policy the new wealth created more bitterness than satisfaction in the nation as a whole. The classical circumstances for a social upheaval had therefore been created in Egypt by the war. The sudden wealth and success of a minority had raised the expectations of the rest and sharpened their discontent.
Sa`d Zaghluwl, was now to succeed Mustafa Kamil as the arch-enemy of the British occupation.

 
EGYPT'S INDUSTRIAL PLAN: REASONS OF FAILURE AND PROSPECTS OF SUCCESS BY DR. IBRAHIM ABDEL MOTALEB. (PART EIGHT). HUSNIY MUBARAK. IN ARABIC

 
 LKAM AFTAQADAK: A POEM BY NEVEEN EL-GAMAL. A poem about our feelings toward those we miss most in this crazy world (IN ARABIC)

EGYPT'S INDUSTRIAL PLAN: REASONS OF FAILURE AND PROSPECTS OF SUCCESS BY DR. IBRAHIM ABDEL MOTALEB. (PART EIGHT).HUSNIY MUBARAK. IN ARABIC


 
 "AL-HILM! ( THE DREAM!) A SHORT STORY BY DR. MOHAMED NAGUIB `ABDALLAH {IN ARABIC} .

 
 AL-HILM! (THE DREAM!)  -- ZAGAL ABUW HAMIYD AL-MISRIY BY DR. AHMED TABBAKH -- {IN ARABIC}.

 
KHATT: UNLOCKING THE MYSTERY OF EGYPT'S ANCIENT ART OF WRITING BY ISHINAN - PART TWO- The path of reclaiming our Ancient Egyptian Heritage starts with correcting the many misinterpretations of the so-called "Hieroglyphs" of Egypt's Ancient Art of Writing.  This is the first step in the arduous task and long struggle to gain the return of our many stolen national treasures from abroad.   So what did our Ancient Egyptian ancestors call "their" writing, mistakenly identified by the West under the misnomer "Hieroglyphs"?

 
"ANATOMY OF CENSORSHIP" COMSTOCKERY IN AMERICA BY ISHINAN

 
DON'T MENTION THE WALK.......  TWO WEEKS IN JAIL IF FANS GOOSE-STEP

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #15  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-- HUSAYN RUSHDY SECOND CABINET

The Protectorate which was imposed by England upon Egypt and which was to last until 1922 was one of the most shameful pages of the history of Modern Egypt.  The Sultan was nothing but a puppet that did not even had a say in the choice of his Prime Minister. Great Britain, as the protector power, canceled the position of Egyptian Foreign Affairs position claiming that it was its duty to run the foreign policy of the country.


 
EGYPT'S INDUSTRIAL PLAN: REASONS OF FAILURE AND PROSPECTS OF SUCCESS ( PART SEVEN) 'ANWAR AL-SADAT A FEATHERLESS PEACOCK : BY DR. IBRAHIM M. ABDEL MOTALEB- IN ARABIC

 
UNRAVELING THE SECRET OF HIEROGLYPHS IN ANCIENT EGYPT BY ISHINAN - PART ONE- 

 
"AL-SIYASAH",  OUR POLITICAL INSTITUTION   &  THE HORSE CULTURE BY ISHINAN 

 
HAZAR FAZAR (THE WORD GAME SERIES) : 4- THE RIDDLE OF "HOBBLE" BY ISHINAN 

 
EGYPT'S INDUSTRIAL PLAN: REASONS OF FAILURE AND PROSPECTS OF SUCCESS BY DR. IBRAHIM ABDEL MOTALEB. PART SIX. GAMAL `ABD AL-NASIR. IN ARABIC

 
ODYSSEY OF EGYPTIAN WATERFOWLS BY ISHINAN: 

The setting is thousands of years ago, at the end of  summer.  The last of the flocks of ducks and geese have just left southern Europe.  After a short pause to feed and to rest for one or more days on the Island of Crete, their crossing resumes toward Egypt. It is said these birds migrate because their parents migrated, and their parents migrated because their parents migrated, and on and on back across the ages. 

This essay is about the untold odyssey of these intrepid waterfowls and their amazing journey to Egypt as witnessed through our history in a physical, as well as a linguistic sense.

Learn why Egyptians pass on their old traditions in many ways the same as these amazing birds. 


 
HAZAR FAZAR (THE WORD GAME SERIES) : 3- THE RIDDLE OF EQUESTRIAN "DRESSAGE" BY ISHINAN 

 
WHO INVENTED OUR NATIONAL SWEET PASTRIES: KUNAFAH AND BASBOUSAH? BY ISHINAN. 

 
ENOUGH IS ENOUGH (KIFAYAH) IN THE LAND OF PLENTY BY ISHINAN. Have you ever wondered why change is difficult to come by in Egypt? 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #14  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE---The outbreak of the war was the catalyst for a series of important events severing the 400 year-old Ottoman connection, Britain declared Egypt a protectorate, thereby finally formalizing the authority it had had for the past 32 years. Abbas Hilmiy, who had been in Constantinople when the war started, was forbidden to return, then declared a traitor and deposed. His two young sons being excluded from succession, his uncle, 60-year-old Husayn Kamel, was made ruler, with the title of Sultan, by the British. There was little enthusiasm in Egypt for either side in the war, but much resentment of the arrogance of British power. 

APPENDIX XIII : THE STRUGGLE OF MUHAMMAD FARIYD IN EXILE BY HISTORIAN `ABD AL-RAHMAN AL-RAF`IY (ARABIC)


 
GATEWAY TO THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT BY JANO EL-KADY -- THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD -- 1069-747 BC. Although the high priest of Thebes was crowned sovereign, a strong, parallel power was established in Tanis, in the eastern Delta region, which set itself up as the northern equivalent of Thebes. Military commanders who had originally come from Libya also increased their influence and eventually ruled as pharaohs over a fragmented Egypt. However, extensive architectural and artistic activity proved Statuette of Taharqo that political problems were not everything. In spite of a few worshipping the more successes in the Near East, Egypt suffered the falcon god, Horns. repercussions of the political and military upheavals of its neighbors and became a tempting prey for rival powers 

747-656 BC: 25TH DYNASTY The Kushites (inhabitants of Nubia and modern Sudan), steeped in Egyptian culture after centuries of domination and acculturation, finally conquered Egypt under Pi (ankh) y . These southern pharaohs (especially Taharqo) restored Egypt to its former unity and strength. Taharqo was finally defeated by the Assyrians in 664-3 BC. 


 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #13  MOHAMMED SAEED  PASHA. In Episode # 13, historian Kamal Katba relates the main events of the cabinet of Muhammad Sa`iyd Pasha, at the eve of WWI.  Sir Eldon Gorst, who replaced Lord Cromer as Consul General in Egypt, with instructions from the British Government to adopt a much more lenient policy than his predecessor, changed his policy of conciliation.  When he died he was succeeded by Lord Herbert Kitchener who had  strict orders from London to “pacify” the Country.  This did not augur well with the Egyptian National Movements. 

The effect of  his policy was to drastically curb the national newspapers, foremost was the closure Al-`alam newspaper,  the mouthpiece of the National Party, led by Muhammad Fariyd Bey. 

The period also witnessed the creation of Cairo University, an attempt at reforming Al-Azhar University and the establishment of the “Nizarat al-Awqaf” (Ministry of Religious Affairs).

This important episode is supplemented with original Arabic sources by eminent Egyptian historians such as `Abd al-Rahman al- Rafi`iy and Dr. Yunan Labiyb Rizq. 


 
 AL-SHABAB AL-DA'I`-- ZAGAL ABUW HAMID AL-MISRIY BY DR: AHMED TABBAKH (IN ARABIC) 

 
 AHLA GUWN ..! A SHORT EGYPTIAN STORY BY DR. SOUMAYA MAHMOUD ( IN ARABIC)

 
 HAZAR FAZAR (THE WORD GAME SERIES) : ANSWER OF THE RIDDLE OF THE " REIN " &  THE WINNERS BY ISHINAN.. 1) Essay on the Arab Roots of  European Equestrianship, 2) Evidence of culture contact. 3) The word as an artifact: Unlocking the past.4) Similar cavalry tactics used in the Shiyduwniyah  (Umm al-Hakiym) and Hastings battles.

 
 
 HAZAR FAZAR (THE WORD GAME SERIES) : THE RIDDLE OF "REIN" BY ISHINAN:

 
EGYPT'S INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM: REASONS OF FAILURE AND PROSPECTS OF SUCCESS ( PART FOUR) . BY DR. IBRAHIM M. ABDEL MOTALEB {IN ARABIC}.
THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS : THE ETYMOLOGY OF  "ARAB" .The etymology of an Arabic  term for a wonder grass which gave its name to the race of Arab  Bedouins in Arabia and evolved to designate " herb",  the well known generic term used for grass in many Western European languages.
THE SUDAN, DARFUR AND TONY BLAIR BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. 7

 
WHAT IS DEMOCRACY?   (2)  DEBUNKING  KAREN ARMSTONG'S  VIEWS OF  "THE GREAT WESTERN TRANSFORMATION" BY ISHINAN

"In the 16th century, the countries of western Europe and, later, the American colonies had embarked on what historians have called "the great western transformation". They created an entirely different kind of civilization, which was without precedent in the history of the world. The distinguishing mark of any modern society is that instead of being based economically upon a surplus of agricultural produce, it is based upon technology and the constant reinvestment of capital. "  "this great western transformation" was due to practices other than the alleged "Democratization" outlined by Armstrong.  The plain and simple fact is that it had to has to do with Colonialism, without which it would not have been possible.


 
WHAT IS DEMOCRACY?  (1) THE PROBLEM OUTLINED -- DISPELLING THE MYTHS. Aristotle's understanding of the concept of democracy was based on a form of government in the Greek city-state, which was known as polis.  This form of government was based on a relatively small, self-sufficient, citizenry, with an elite class at the top.  While the rest  (the majority) of the people were the workforce consisting of slaves, manual laborers, and women.  Aristotle's world was made up of city-states, and his political theories worked from the assumption that the polis was the most sensible form of government.  Is that the model of Democracy with which we are been bombarded today in Egypt?

 
KHART: THE ART OF WOODTURNING IN EGYPT-BY ISHINAN. Under the 1952 Revolution, Mashrabiyat experienced a second lease on life under the new impetus of the dynamic minister of culture, Dr. Tharwat `Uqashah, who embarked on an ambitious program to revive Egypt’s folklore arts and crafts.  For that purpose, in the early 1960s, a center for folklore crafts was dedicated and established in wikalit al-Ghuwriy. Its goal was to teach the new generations the old traditional crafts of Egypt, lest they vanish forever. 

 
EGYPT'S INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM: REASONS OF FAILURE AND PROSPECTS OF SUCCESS ( PART THREE) . BY DR. IBRAHIM M. ABDEL MOTALEB {IN ARABIC}.

 
LUXURIOUS FARAWAY HOSPITAL -- IS INDIA ON ITS WAY TO BECOME "THE" HEALTHCARE CENTER OF THE WORLD? BY ISHINAN
THE JEWELS" A SHORT STORY BY GUY DE MAUPASSANT 
 EGYPT'S DESTINY -- MUHAMMAD NAGIYB'S MEMOIRS -- EPISODE TWELVE : In this Episode Muhammad Nagiyb's is transferred to the Frontier Corps in 1934. 
 'ARDINAA AL-TAYYIBAH -- ZAGAL ABUW HAMIYD AL-MISRIY BY DR. AHMED TABBAKH -- {IN ARABIC}.
THE LOST MEMOIRS OF EX-KING FAARUWQ- I --- EPISODE TEN: FINAL DESTINATION TO THE ISLAND OF CAPRI 
HAZAR FAZAR : THE ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE AND THE WINNERS OF THE WORD GAME SERIES -- "SHACKLE". BY ISHINAN
HAZAR FAZAR (THE WORD GAME SERIES) -- UNCOVERING THE MYSTERY OF " SHACKLE" BY ISHINAN
THE ART CORNER: HILWAH YAA BALADIY -- - MAY 2005 COVER) BY ISHINAN 
GATEWAY TO THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT BY JANO EL-KADY -- THE 20TH DYNASTY, THE RAMESSID PERIOD 
CAIRO'S FORMER "GREEN ZONE": AL-'AZBAKIYYAH-BY ISHINAN. THIS WELL KNOWN DISTRICT HAS HAD A PERVASIVE INFLUENCE ON THE CAIRENE SOCIETY DURING THE HALF A MILLENNIUM, INFLUENCING ALMOST EVERY ASPECT OF LIFE AND CONSTITUTING WHAT MAY COME TO BE SEEN AS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT SYMBOLS OF THE COMPLEXITY OF THE HISTORY OF OUR CAPITAL.ITS SOCIAL AND CULTURAL IMPACT, WHICH OFFERS A WIDE SCOPE OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY, IS THE SUBJECT OF THIS ARTICLE. 
A NOSTALGIC AUTOBIOGRAPHY GUARANTEED TO MELT THE HEART OF ANY EGYPTIAN BY WRITER, MONA ABDALLAH.
FASL AL-KALAM ; ZAGAL ABUW HAMIYD AL-MISRIY BY DR. AHMED AL-TABBAKH {IN ARABIC}.

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #12  . In this episode 

 
 THE EGYPTIAN ART CORNER BY ISHINAN: AL-WIKAALAH THEME --- (AL-QAHIRAH AL-FATIMIYAH SERIES)
.
" QISAT HUBB" A LOVE STORY BY DR. MOHAMED NAGUIB ABDALLAH{IN ARABIC} .
EGYPT'S INDUSTRIAL PLAN: REASONS OF FAILURE AND PROSPECTS OF SUCCESS ( PART TWO) "THE SUCCESS OF MUHAMMAD `ALIY INDUSTRIALIZATION PROGRAM" BY DR. IBRAHIM M. ABDEL MOTTALEB- IN ARABIC
"ANA    BASS `ALA 'AKBAR" --A SHORT STORY  BY EGYPTIAN WRITER  REHAB BASSAM -- IN ARABIC
THE GATEWAY TO THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT (EPISODE XII)-- THE NEW KINGDOM - THE 19 DYNASTY BY JANO EL-KADY - 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #11 THIRD NIZARAT OF MUSTAFA FAHMI  PASHA . The third Mustafa Fahmi Cabinet could be considered as the longest Cabinet in the history of Egypt.  It was rich in years, thirteen years, and rich in events such as the re-conquest of the Sudan, the tragedy of Densheway, the resignation of Lord Cromer and the birth of a very strong National Movement and National Press. 
EGYPT'S DESTINY -- MUHAMMAD NAGIYB'S MEMOIRS -- EPISODE ELEVEN &  AL-HAWASHIY:  (BIOS OF KING FUW'AD AND QUEEN NAZLIY) 
THE LION OF THE EAST( EPISODE # TEN) -- THE DOUBLE EDGED SWORD OF MODERNIZATION IN EGYPT.
FARIS FAYIQ `UWDAH BY DR. SOUMAYA MAHMOUD-- IN ARABIC
MIN AL-SHURFAH --( A VIEW FROM THE BALCONY)-- AN EGYPTIAN SHORT STORY BY MONA MA7MOUD -- IN ARABIC
FUW'AD HADDAD -- SHA`IR AL-SHU`ARA' -- HIS LIFE AND THE MOST MEMORABLE OF HIS POEMS-- BY AMEEN HADDAAD : The late poet Fuw'ad Haddad was universally known in Egypt and the Arab world as  "sha`ir al-Shu`ara'" the Doyen of Poets. 

His son Ameen Haddad recalls in his article his childhood and  adult life, including some of his most memorable poems which delighted the millions of his generation. 

Salah Jaheen,  the celebrated poet and cartoonist, once said that Fuw'ad was his first inspiration as he considered himself his avid student. 

AN UNUSUAL ANTHEM WITH AN UNPRECEDENTED MESSAGE-- HAVE THE ARABS FINALLY FOUND THEIR "MARSEILLAISE" ?
. BY ISHINAN
THE LEGACY OF "USAR" IN MODERN EGYPT . BY ISHINAN
THE RITE OF PASSAGE : THE DEER HUNTING SEASON & HAZING IN THE AMERICAN  SOCIETY . BY ISHINAN
THE GATEWAY TO THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT (EPISODE XI)-- THE NEW KINGDOM BY JANO EL-KADY
ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS BY ISHINAN- PART- III: "RIDDLES FROM THE ANGLO-SAXON LANDS -- WOOD .

 
ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS BY ISHINAN- PART- III: "RIDDLES FROM THE ANGLO-SAXON LANDS -- GRASS .
ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS BY ISHINAN- PART- III: "RIDDLES FROM THE ANGLO-SAXON LANDS -- HAY .
THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS BY ISHINAN- PART- IV: "THE WONDER GRASS" .
HUDN AL-HABIYB: ZAGAL ABUW HAMIYD AL-MISRIY --  BY DR. AHMED El-TABBAKH. (In Arabic)
THE ART CORNER : PAINTING ENTITLED : KISHSH MALIK (CHECKMATE) BY ISHINAN 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # : NIZARAT RIYAD AND NUBAR  PASHAS UNDER THE REIGN OF  KHEDIVE ABBAS HELMY .
THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS BY ISHINAN- PART- III 
ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS BY ISHINAN -- PART II 
THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS BY ISHINAN-PART II
ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS BY ISHINAN -- PART I
THE RIDDLE OF THE WORDS BY ISHINAN -- PART I 
MICHAEL MOORE'S FAHRNHEIT 911 REVIEWED BY HAZEM WEFY

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