KAMAL KARIM  KATBA COPYRIGHT (2003 -  2010) 

The Egyptian Chronicles is a cooperative effort by a group of  Egyptian authors pooling together their talents for the sake of  Egypt's Future.  Articles contained in these pages are the personal views and/or work of the authors, who bear the sole responsibility of the content of their work. This Monthly Electronic Magazine is a non-profit , commercial free zone and is answerable to no one.
 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. Episode One deals with the reign of Khedive Ismail, where we witness the birth of the "Nizara" dubbed as the "European Ministry" which was headed by the Armenian Nubar Pasha (1824-1899)  under not so ideal conditions.
 
 
 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. Episode Two deals with the nizarat Mohammad Cherif Pasha,  known for championing a constitutional form of Government and excluding foreigners from the ministerial cabinet.
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 4 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA.EPISODE # 4

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 5 :  In this episode The Brits invade Egypt - Nizarat Ismail Ragheb Pasha 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 6:  THE BRITISH OCCUPATION OF EGYPT-- 4TH NIZARAT OF MOHAMMED CHERIF PASHA. On September 14, 1882, after the battle of Tell El-Kebir, the British soldiers occupied Cairo. Thus began the long British Occupation of Egypt which lasted until June 1956. In episode VI, historian Kamal Katba points to an eerie parallel between the British occupation of Egypt in 1882 and the American occupation of Iraq in 2003. 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #7:  THE BRITISH OCCUPATION OF EGYPT-- In Episode # 7,  an account of the Second Nizarat (Ministry) of Nuwbar Pasha and its endless tug of war with Evelyn Baring (Lord Cromer). Nuwbar was heard on several occasions expressing his frustration: Occupation, yes (reluctantly), Administration, no!!   Also in this Episode, an account of the Mahdiy uprising in the Sudan and the first loss of the Sudan.  Including a rare draft letter from Charles Gordon to his friend Wilfrid Blunt outlining the treacherous behavior of British Prime Minister Gladstone toward Egypt and his gile to occupy Egypt.

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #8  In this episode the second Nizarat of Mustfa Riyad Pasha -- The Occupying Authorities' choice of Mustafa Fahmi Pasha to form a new Cabinet was based on the understanding that he was a ?yes sir man? and his sympathy and allegiance to the British were well known. On September 19, 1882, that is to say, six days after the battle of Tel-el-Kebir had been fought, the following laconic Decree, inspired by the British new occupier, appeared in the Official Journal : The Disbandment of the Egyptian army! 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 9 SECOND  NIZARAT OF MUSTAFA FAHMI  PASHA .  In episode: "Without consulting with Lord Cromer, Abbas Helmy, the young Khedive,  requested Hussein Fakhry Pasha  to form a new Cabinet.  Two days later,  the British Cabinet had an emergency cession, in London, and declared that the fact that the Egyptian Khedive could fire an existing Cabinet and appoint a new one without prior consultation with the British Resident, in Cairo, was simply unacceptable.  An ultimatum was sent to Egypt, which forced the Khedive to accept the resignation of the Fakhry Cabinet, on January 18, 1893, making it one of the shortest living Cabinet in the history of the Country. 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 10 - In this episode: One of the most important actions of the Ryad Cabinet was its genuine interest in irrigation and agriculture.  To use wisely the Nile water and to protect the Country against the sometime severe floods of the river, the Cabinet formed a committee of three notorious European Engineers to study the feasibility of building several dams and to decide about their emplacements.  That decision was the prelude to the erection of several dams, particularly the (old) Aswan Dam, that were built a few years later." 

 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #11 THIRD NIZARAT OF MUSTAFA FAHMI  PASHA . In this episode: The third Mustafa Fahmi Cabinet could be considered as the longest Cabinet in the history of Egypt.  It was rich in years, thirteen years, and rich in events such as the re-conquest of the Sudan, the tragedy of Densheway, the resignation of Lord Cromer and the birth of a very strong National Movement and National Press.

 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 12 -  Nizarat  Butros Pasha Ghali
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #13  MOHAMMED SAEED  PASHA.In Episode # 13, historian Kamal Katba relates the main events of the cabinet of Muhammad Sa`iyd Pasha, at the eve of WWI.  Sir Eldon Gorst, who replaced Lord Cromer as Consul General in Egypt, with instructions from the British Government to adopt a much more lenient policy than his predecessor, changed his policy of conciliation.  When he died he was succeeded by Lord Herbert Kitchener who had  strict orders from London to “pacify” the Country.  This did not augur well with the Egyptian National Movements. The effect of  his policy was to drastically curb the national newspapers, foremost was the closure Al-`alam newspaper,  the mouthpiece of the National Party, led by Muhammad Fariyd Bey. The period also witnessed the creation of Cairo University, an attempt at reforming Al-Azhar University and the establishment of the “Nizarat al-Awqaf” (Ministry of Religious Affairs). This important episode is supplemented with original Arabic sources by eminent Egyptian historians such as `Abd al-Rahman al- Rafi`iy and Dr. Yunan Labiyb Rizq. 
 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #14  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE---The outbreak of the war was the catalyst for a series of important events severing the 400 year-old Ottoman connection, Britain declared Egypt a protectorate, thereby finally formalizing the authority it had had for the past 32 years. Abbas Hilmiy, who had been in Constantinople when the war started, was forbidden to return, then declared a traitor and deposed. His two young sons being excluded from succession, his uncle, 60-year-old Husayn Kamel, was made ruler, with the title of Sultan, by the British. There was little enthusiasm in Egypt for either side in the war, but much resentment of the arrogance of British power. 

APPENDIX XIII : THE STRUGGLE OF MUHAMMAD FARIYD IN EXILE BY HISTORIAN `ABD AL-RAHMAN AL-RAF`IY (ARABIC)


 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #15  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-- HUSAYN RUSHDY SECOND CABINET
In this episode: The Protectorate which was imposed by England upon Egypt and which was to last until 1922 was one of the most shameful pages of the history of Modern Egypt.  The Sultan was nothing but a puppet that did not even had a say in the choice of his Prime Minister. Great Britain, as the protector power, canceled the position of Egyptian Foreign Affairs position claiming that it was its duty to run the foreign policy of the country.
 
 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #16  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-- HUSAYN RUSHDY THIRD CABINET WITH APPENDIX XVI : MUHAMMAD FARIYD'S STOCKHOLM MEMORANDUM OCTOBER 17.In this episode:PRELUDE TO UPRISING: During WWI, the cotton boom primarily enriched the big and medium landowners who formed less than ten per cent of the cultivators but owned nearly 75 per cent of the cultivated area. In the towns,  a small class  profiteered from the presence of Allied troops. Yet because the Government was devoid of any social policy the new wealth created more bitterness than satisfaction in the nation as a whole. The classical circumstances for a social upheaval had therefore been created in Egypt by the war. The sudden wealth and success of a minority had raised the expectations of the rest and sharpened their discontent.
Sa`d Zaghluwl, was now to succeed Mustafa Kamil as the arch-enemy of the British occupation.

 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA.   EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-EPISODE 17--In this episode: On the 8th, Sa`d Pasha Zaghluwl, and with him Hamd Pasha al-Basil, Isma`iyl Pasha Sidqiy, and Muhammad Pasha Mahmuwd, were arrested. The following morning they were taken to Port Sa`iyd and placed on board a British destroyer Caledonia, to be deported to Malta. The arrest of these four men set the conflagration alight and the 1919 Revolution began. y the end of the crisis, 1,000 Egyptians were killed, 1,600 wounded; 27 British soldiers killed, 70 wounded; and four British civilians killed.
 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #18  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-EPISODE --n In this episode:Sultan Ahmad Fouad decided, with Allenby ‘s approval, to call on Mohammad Saeed Pasha to form a new Cabinet.  The objective of the new Cabinet was to calm the situation in the Country by whatever means! Meanwhile Sa`d Zaghlul and his fellow internees, reinforced by other Wafd leaders, were allowed to proceed to the Peace Conference at Paris,   Zaghlul and his followers aree met in Paris with calculated snubs, and the British authorities gave maximum publicity in Egypt to the American decision. In the eyes of educated Egyptians the British had once again given proof of their inveterate hostility and duplicity towards Egypt. 

 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA  EGYPT UNDER THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE-EPISODE 19--In Episode 19, Wahba Pasha 's Cabinet was constituted on November 20, 1919. Most of its Ministers were members of the previous Cabinet who agreed to fully collaborate with the Milner Commission.  On that same day of its formation, Lord Allenby announced the forthcoming arrival of the Milner Commission, which explains the wave of unpopularity and defiance with which was met the formation of that Cabinet.

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #20  In this episode # 20:The Egyptian Cabinet headed by Nasim Pasha agreed to encourage the erection of more constructions by granting loans and facilities to the building contractors and particularly to the Heliopolis Company which promised to build six hundreds building more than planned. The Milner Commisssion: Milner's recommendation that Egypt be granted a form of independence was rejected by the Cabinet, leading to Milner's resignation in 1921 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #21 In this episode # 21: Fierce demonstrations erupts as a result of excluding the Wafd from the negotiations, particularly in the Cairo, Alexandria and the large cities of the Country; a strong feeling of animosity and hatred was directed toward all those who contradicted Zaghloul Pasha's call for independence.Winston Churchill, who was then the British Minister of Colonies, declared that any negotiation with Egypt would be pointless since, as the events in Alexandria show, the presence of British troops in Egypt was vital for the protection of Foreign lives and British interests and their evacuation was made impossible by the local animosity.  Mr. Churchill ‘s declaration united the Cabinet and the Wafd in protest and seemed to be a prelude for the failure of the Negotiations before they even started. In addition : The saga of  "The Awakening of Egypt" ( Nahdat Misr), arguably the country's most famed statue, embodies, perhaps more than any other symbol, the national liberation struggle. Sculpted by Mahmoud Mukhtar in 1928, the work, which stands to this day, specifically epitomizes the spirit of the 1919 Revolution. 
 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #22 .In this episode:  In its bid for independence, a defiant Egypt threw the occupying power, Britain, into a quandary for more than two months by leaving the country without a government. Independence negotiations failed in December 1921 and the cabinet then in office, led by `Adliy Yakan, resigned in protest. The British cast about for a replacement but no Egyptian leader would agree to form a government unless the British yielded on the independence issue.

Following Yakan's resignation the British protectorate authorities found themselves stymied in their efforts to form a new government. They had invited `Abd al-Khaliq Tharwat to form a new cabinet, but their second deportation of Sa`d Zaghluwl made it virtually impossible for Tharwat to accept unless the British met a number of conditions. As tensions mounted between the Foreign Office and Allenby, who was more conciliatory towards moderate nationalist demands, Allenby was summoned to London to discuss possible solutions to the challenge posed by Egypt. 


 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #23 . In this episode : The main and most important achievement of Yahya Ibrahim pasha Cabinet was the publication, on April 19, 1923, of the new Constitution which declared that Egypt would be, from that date on, an Independent Nation and a Constitutional Monarchy with separate Executive, Legislative and Judiciary Powers.  Later, that same King would abolish the1923 Constitution rewriting one to his own liking. 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #24 . In this episode :  An Egyptian Delegation headed by Saad Pasha proceeded to London and held  three sessions before returning empty handed to Egypt.  The Egyptians submitted to their British counterparts their non-negotiable demands, which were:  the evacuation of British troops, the withdrawal of the British Financial and Judicial Advisors, the right of Egypt to run its Foreign Policy according to its interests and its right to be the sole protector of the foreign subjects living within its boundaries; any other problems between the two Countries could be negotiable.
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #25:  In this episode : Sir Lee Stack Pasha was assassinated in Cairo on 19 November 1924 The British reaction was immediate and severe. In his ultimatum to the Egyptian Government, the High Commissioner demanded, among other things, the withdrawal of all Egyptian Army units from the Sudan. He also informed them of the plan to extend the irrigated area in the Sudan by some 300,000 feddans.

 When Saad Zaghlul could not accept all the demands in the ultimatum, the British Army occupied the Alexandria Customs House. Saad Zaghlul Pasha resigned on 23 November and Ahmad Ziwar Pasha, first President of the Senate, formed a new government which acceded unconditionally to the British ultimatum. 

A stronger Law of Associations was decreed in October to which all opposition political parties objected. The dissolved Wafdist Parliament met privately in the Continental Hotel to protest all these measures and to press the Government to reinstate constitutional life. Popular feeling was further aroused when the Ziwar Government gave in to the Italian territorial claims over the Jaghbub oasis on the LibyanEgyptian frontier. This was a centre of Sanusi activities and thus carried Islamic overtones. 

On the positive side the Cabinet allocated the amount of three millions pounds for the “JABAL AL -'AWLIYA’A” dam project and two millions for the “NAG-HAMADI” dam.

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #26 . In this episode : The political parties formed a joint committee in January I926 to co-ordinate their electoral policies. They first decided to boycott the elections held under the indirect process, and to hold a national congress instead. 

POLITICAL TURMOIL: By February the government, under pressure, reverted to direct elections which were held in May. Again the Wafd secured a majority of the seats (I65); but Sa`d  Zaghluwl was unwilling to take on the premiership as this would have brought him immediately in direct confrontation with the difficult problem of British policy in Egypt. Instead, he agreed to a coalition government with the Liberals headed by their leader Adli Yakan which was formed in June. Parliament was convened and Sa`d was again elected Speaker of the House. 

In its first session this Parliament abrogated all legislation passed when the House was not in session since December 1924; decided to deposit all local and provincial government funds in the new Bank Misr to boost local, native enterprise; passed a General Amnesty Bill for political crimes committed during the period December I924-April I926. 

The second session of this Parliament reconvened in November I926 and was occupied with the control of cotton cultivation, loans to cotton growers, and co-operative law projects. While discussing industrialization plans in April 1927, Adli resigned. 

A new crisis involving British interests cropped up only weeks after Sarwat's Government took office over the financing and control of the Egyptian Army. Deputies recommended that the British Sirdar of the Army be replaced with an Egyptian, and to discontinue the membership of the British Inspector-General on the Army Council. 

GUNBOAT DIPLOMACY: The British reaction on 29 May 1927 was swift and arrogant, backed up by the dispatch of a British fleet detachment to Alexandria. Egypt was forced to extend the British Inspector-General's service for another five years, and agreed to enter into new negotiations with Britain.


 
 

 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #27 . In this episode: Tharwat Pasha accepts to form a Cabinet on condition that his Government would not be subjected to harsh criticism by the elected members of the House, concerning the Government relations with London and that the Parliamentary deliberation of the Laws pertaining to the Egyptian Army and those regulating the appointment of villages Mayors would be indefinitely postponed . 

 In 1928 the Egyptian parliament proposes the creation of of the Royal Egyptian Army Air Force (REAAF). 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #28: In this episode:  On 15 March, King Fouad summoned al-Nahhas and officially charged him with forming a new government. Following his audience at the palace, the Wafd leader headed directly to Bayt al-'Ummah (the House of the People) where he held separate meetings with each of his party colleagues "to solicit their advice on the composition of the new cabinet and who they would recommend in the event some of the current ministers decided to step down."  As has always been the case on such occasions, there was a spate of rumors over the composition of the forthcoming cabinet. 

A testimony to El-Nahhas' strength of character was his  success in stitching together a government in only two days. The royal decree announcing the new cabinet was issued on Saturday 17 March 1928 amidst great fanfare as expressed in the flood of congratulatory letters and telegrams that poured into Bayt al-'Ummah

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #29: In this episode:  Mohammed Mahmoud Pasha, seeks to take control of the Wafd Party from within. Grasping the opportunity of Saad Zaghloul's death in 1927 and the ensuing struggle over the presidency of the Wafd Party, he presents himself as the most deserving contender.  However he loses the presidency to Mustafa El-Nahhas. Meanwhile  the King, in consultation with the British High Commissioner, choses him to form a new Cabinet after firing El-Nahhas. 

Mohammed Mahmoud Pasha was the only government man to have dared to suspend the entire constitution and declare that he would rule with firmness to put an end to the muddled conditions resulting from partisan rule. The speeches he gave during this period, which were later collected in the book "The strong hand", indicate the man's insistence on overlooking constitutional rule. This is exactly what took place in 1928 and 1929. 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #30: In this episode:  Sir Percy, the British high commissioner to Egypt, had arrived in the country when Mohamed Mahmoud was prime minister. Mahmoud had succeeded in hammering out an agreement with London over various aspects of the British military presence and level of diplomatic representation in Egypt. However, the British felt that any such agreement with Cairo needed popular backing which only the Wafd Party could provide. Mahmoud was compelled to step down and elections were held, bringing to power a Wafd government headed by Mustafa El-Nahhas.'
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #31: In this episode:  In this episode:   Only a day after forming the new cabinet, the prime minister issued an edict postponing the opening of the Wafdist-majority parliament for a month. Things were not proceeding as Sidqi had planned. True, order prevailed as he read out the decree postponing the opening of parliament. However, instead of remaining silent, as he had hoped, the members of parliament responded by reciting their oath "to defend the constitution with all the power, money and spirit of sacrifice I possess".

Meanwhile the new government responded  by pledging to "instill peace of mind among the people and to work towards ensuring public order and safety by force if necessary. Thus started Sidqi's extremely controversial and oppressive political rule for the next three years.


 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #32. In this episode: The apparent failure of the liberal-constitutional forces led by the Wafd in dealing with the so-called national issue became apparent with the Sidqi period during which a strong, repressive government ruled in conjunction with the monarch, kept party leaders particularly those of the Wafd  outside the normal channels of political activity. It hardened the lines of opposition, of personal and group antipathies among the ranks of the establishment. It also forced the eventual compromise of those original supporters of constitutional government in the Liberal and Wafd parties as a price either for sharing in, or coming to, power. Such behavior in turn further alienated many followers of the Wafd from its leadership. 

King Fouad replaced Sidqi's cabinet, first with Abdel Fattah Yayha Pasha then by Mohammed Tawfiq Nasim who was well known for his close relationship with the occupying Power.  Pressures for the restoration of the 1923 constitution then became too strong for the King to resist. 

Meanwhile students, professionals and intellectuals, as well as simple city and rural masses could now more readily be attracted by new nationalist movements and this inevitably tended to strengthen particularly new organizations such as the Muslim Brethren and Young Egypt. 
 

 
 AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #33AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #33: In this episode: Under Egypt's joke status as a "free, independent and sovereign Kingdom." there are three powers: Britain, the Egyptian King and the overwhelmingly popular Wafd Party. 

Of these three, any combination of two is possible. Britain and Fuw'ad combined to suppress the Wafd; Britain and the Wafd combined to clip Fuw'ad's autocratic powers; Fuw'ad and the Wafd combined to defy Britain. 

Meanwhile, in a bleak stone villa in London's suburban Kingston Hill, a tall, dazed, blue-eyed boy of 16 gets a long-distance call from Cairo. It is his mother, Queen Nazliy.

 "My son," she sobbed, "you are King." Egypt's King Fuw'ad had just died of heart attack and gangrene of the mouth

The death of King Fuw'ad cut short the deliberations of delegations of Britons and Egyptians engaged in drawing up a new Anglo-Egyptian treaty giving Egypt a few new privileges and confirming Britain's military strangle hold. From Britain's point of view King Fuw'ad had died just a little too soon. 

For the next two years, all-important period of the treaty negotiations with Britain, Egypt's real ruler must be a Regency Council. Fourteen years ago King Fuw'ad wrote three names on a paper, sealed the paper in an envelope, put the envelope in his safe, gave a sealed duplicate to the Government. This envelope must be opened (within ten days of the King's death) in the presence of Parliament and voted on. If Parliament dislikes the King's regents, it must nominate its own. King Fuw'ad dissolved the last Parliament two years ago, only last December reluctantly restored constitutional government. 

There was still no Senate. Old time politicians, accustomed to gypping the popular masses, proposed to use the Government's "temporary sovereign rights" to open the late King's envelope and let the Government of Premier `Aliy Mahir Pasha appoint two-fifths of a new Senate. Had there been a strong new King at hand, Premier Mahir Pasha might have done so. 

Instead the Premier agreed with the Wafd leader to call a Senate election within a  week. Senate and Chamber to assemble on the tenth day after Fuw'ad's death to watch the opening of the envelope. 
 

 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 34  In this episode:  The treaty was signed on 26 August 1936. It provided for a twenty year military alliance, which limited the British occupation in time and place, and called it by another name. It gave the Royal Air Force the freedom of Egyptian skies and the right to maintain airfields on Egyptian soil. It gave the Royal Navy the use of Alexandria Harbour. Great Britain thus obtained for twenty years the substance of the first two reserved points. The third point had already been conceded to Egypt in principle and the treaty provided for British help in getting the Capitulations abolished. On the fourth point, Egypt recognized the Condominium Agreement, and joined the British in declaring that the welfare of its people should inspire the policies of the two countries in the administration of the Sudan. 

When Nahas Pasha signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty in 1936, the Wafd had objectively acknowledged its failure to achieve the Istiqlal al Tamm (the total independence) which it had demanded in I9I9. But instead of explaining that the facts of power did not permit of real independence, and setting Egypt's face towards the patient acquisition of increased power, Nahas presented the Treaty as a triumph for the national movement. The intellectuals were unconvinced, the Wafdists' political opponents were contemptuous, and Egyptian internal political struggles continued unabated. In the aftermath of the 1936 treaty, the reputation of the Wafd, as the pure expression of the nation's determination to shake free from the British control was irreconcilably tarnished. 

The political history of Egypt from 1923 to 1936 thus became a three sided contest between the Palace, the British and the Wafd. The aim of the Palace was to destroy the constitution and to restore the autocracy of the ruling family. The aim of the British was to obtain consent to the reserved points from a constitutionally legitimate Egyptian Government. The aim of the Wafd was to abolish the reserved points and to limit the powers of the King. The interest of each corner of the triangle was thus sometimes closer to the first and sometimes to, the second of the other two corners, and political alliances were therefore short-lived. 

Also Included in this episode:  1) Politics and Diplomacy: the Diary of Sir Miles Lampson.1935-37.  2) The Arabic text of the 1936  treaty  & commentary by historian `Abd al-Rahman al-Raf`iy. The years of the Youth rebellion by Prof. Yonan Labib Rizq. 3)  The Egyptian  Government's agreement with the Suez Canal Company. 4) Benito Mussolini and the Ethiopian war. 5) Alexandria in the 1930's. 
 

 
 
AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 35.  In this episode: The new King, Faruwq, was only sixteen in the summer of 1936 when he acceded, and a Regency Council acted for him until July 1937. The  Egyptian people welcomed the young king with enthusiasm, and the minority parties rallied round him to exploit his popularity as a counterweight to the waning but still important popularity of the Wafd.  Meanwhile the `ulama'  hailed the young Faruwq as the "Pious King" and branded al-Nahhas Pasha as the "impious politician". 
The Wafd had been unable to capitalize on its unsatisfying interim solution of the British problem, and the King was able to gather round him most of the other elements in Egyptian politics, including the Misr al- Fatah, whose green-shirted youth organization counterweighted the blueshirted para-military section of the Wafd. (see attached history) 

In 1937 al-Nahhas government was in conflict with the 'ulama' on the question of transferring matters of personal status, from the jurisdiction of the religious to that of the national courts. 

The conflict grew and after an internal quarrel had weakened the Wafd, and led to the important defection of al-Nuqrashiy Pasha and Ahmad Mahir, the President of the Chamber, the King felt sure enough of his popularity to dismiss al-Nahhas and dissolve Parliament. His judgment was vindicated when the elections of 1938, held under Constitutional Liberal auspices, reduced the Wafdists to twelve seats in Parliament.

 
 
 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #36: In this episode: At the eve of WWII an important change in Egyptian attitudes is finally taking shape.  This was the turn towards Arab nationalism. Egyptians began to accept the proposition that an Arab nation exists and that Egypt is an important part of it. The change began slowly between the wars and gained ground rapidly during World War II. 

The growth of the Arabic press and the birth of broadcasting in Arabic ensured that Egyptians became aware of the  sufferings of their Muslim brethren at the hands of the European imperialists. the violence roused by the British sponsored National Home for the Zionists in Palestine; the Italian repression of al-Sinuwssiy in the early 1930s: all these seconded the efforts of Sati` al-Husriy  and other intellectual publicists for Arab nationalism, and began to turn Egyptian nationalists away from the aim of creating an Egypt for the Egyptians, on the model of a western European democracy, and towards Muslim solidarity and Arab nationalist unity under Egyptian leadership. By the end of the inter-war period the very idea of Egypt for the Egyptians was beginning to give way to the idea of Egypt as part of the Arab nation.

 
 
 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #  37  In this episode   With the beginning of World War II, Egypt again became vital to Britain's defense. Britain had to assure, if not the wholehearted support of Egypt, at least its acquiescence in British military and political policies during the crisis. For its part, Egypt considered the war a European conflict and hoped to avoid being entangled in it. Following the articles of the 1936 treaty  a Royal decree was proclaimed on September 2, 1939, declaring  MARTIAL LAWS. On 10 June 1940, the Kingdom of Italy aligned itself with Germany and declared war upon France and the United Kingdom. British forces based in Egypt were ordered to undertake defensive measures, but to act as non-provocative as possible.  However, on 11 June they began a series of raids against Italian positions in Libya. In addition there had been a large Italian community in Cairo prior to the war. Following the June 10, 1940 declaration of war, nearly all of the Italian men were arrested and nearly all Italian property was seized, leaving the women in poverty.

In response El Duce Benito Mussolini ordered that the Tenth Army  to invade Egypt ..

Initially as one Axis victory succeeded another, Egyptians grew increasingly convinced that Germany and Italy  would win the war. Many were pleased at the prospect of a German victory, not because they were attracted to the Axis ideology, but because they viewed any enemy of their enemy,  as a friend. Meanwhile, the British were determined to prevent an Egyptian-German alliance.

To appease the British, the Egyptian Cabinet amended the Criminal Law by adding articles imposing harsh sentences for crimes committed against the safety of the Country and that of its ALLIES (mainly the British) 


 
 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 38   In this episode Despite a more pro-British accommodating-policy - the Sirry Government is unable to satisfy the opposition groups and the King, or to meet adequately the deteriorating economic situation in the country.

To make things worse Rommel's forces are again advancing towards Egypt. Sirry's Government resigned on 2 February I942 amidst demonstrations in Cairo shouting anti-British slogans 'Forward Rommel; Long Live Rommel.' These go on for a day or two while the country remains without a government.

The British Ambassador informs the King via the Chief of the Royal Cabinet that a government headed by Nahhas, leader of the Wafd, should be formed. The King invites Nahhas on 3 February to form a national government. Nahhas declines. In the face of this, the British Ambassador urges the King again through Hasanayn to invite Nahhas to form a Wafdist Government. A hurried meeting of all party and other political leaders at the Palace is taking place on the afternoon of 4 February. Meanwhile the British Ambassador presents an ultimatum to King Faruwq.The assembled politicians, upon hearing the text of the ultimatum, decide to reply to the British Ambassador wide a protest signed by all of them. The British ultimatum constitutes an attack upon the independence of Egypt, an interference in its domestic affairs, and a violation of the provisions of the Anglo-Egyptian alliance. 

Meanwhile, British Troops headed by General Stone, and a detail of armed officers and tanks storm `Abdiyn Palace. Faced with abdication the King has no choice but to invite  immediately Nahhas to form a Wafdist Government. Such is the episode better known as the 4 February Incident. The real effect of the 4 February Incident on domestic Egyptian politics is as far-reaching.

 


 
 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 39  In this episode : Ahmad Muhammad Hasanayn Chief of the Royal Cabinet urges the King to invite Husayn Sirri, another Independent, to form a Cabinet. This includes Liberals, Independents and Ittihad-Shaabists and takes office on 15 November 1940.
The Saadists, who by then are the only group which openly favor an Egyptian declaration of war on the Axis powers, refuse to participate in this coalition. The Wafd, moreover, persists in its non co-operation policy with these minority governments. 

Sirry's first government lasts eight and a half months, during which time the economic situation in the country deteriorates and the Allied military position in the Western Desert becomes precarious. 
The Germans invade and occupy mainland Greece in April 1941 and Crete soon thereafter. At the same time the Afrika Corps moves into North Africa to assist their Italian allies. Axis air raids on Egypt increase; the food supply situation creates anxiety; hoarding follows. 

A reshuffling in the Sirry Cabinet in July 1941 to accommodate returning Saadist ministers coincides with an improvement in the British military position in Libya. 

 








 


 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 40.  In this episode Despite a more pro-British accommodating-policy - the Sirry Government is unable to satisfy the opposition groups and the King, or to meet adequately the deteriorating economic situation in the country.

To make things worse Rommel's forces are again advancing towards Egypt. Sirry's Government resigned on 2 February I942 amidst demonstrations in Cairo shouting anti-British slogans 'Forward Rommel; Long Live Rommel.' These go on for a day or two while the country remains without a government.

The British Ambassador informs the King via the Chief of the Royal Cabinet that a government headed by Nahhas, leader of the Wafd, should be formed. The King invites Nahhas on 3 February to form a national government. Nahhas declined. In the face of this, the British Ambassador urges the King again through Hasanayn to invite Nahhas to form a Wafdist Government. A hurried meeting of all party and other political leaders at the Palace is taking place on the afternoon of 4 February. Meanwhile the British Ambassador presents an ultimatum to Kimg Faruwq.The assembled politicians, upon hearing the text of the ultimatum, decided to reply to the British Ambassador wide a protest signed by all of them. The British ultimatum constitutes an attack upon the independence of Egypt, an interference in its domestic affairs, and a violation of the provisions of the Anglo-Egyptian alliance. 

British Troops headed by General Stone, and a detail of armed officers and tanks storm `Abdiyn Palace. Faced with abdication the King has no choice but to immediately invite Nahhas to form a Wafdist Government. Such is the episode better known as the 4 February Incident. The real effect of the 4 February Incident on domestic Egyptian politics is as far-reaching

 


 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 41. In this episode, On 9 June 1945 censorship was lifted from the Press; so was the ban on political associations and meetings. On 4 October martial law was abolished. Meantime, a Labour Government had come to power in London in July. Very soon thereafter in December the Egyptian Government formally requested the assumption of talks with representatives of the British Government with a view to a revision of the 1936 Treaty. 

The Egyptian Opposition Parties also,and for the first time dared to send a note to the Allied Countries, whose Leaders were then attending a Conference at the Mena House Hotel, in Gizeh, Egypt,requesting the British Government to reconsider those 1936 Treatyclauses concerning the Egyptian sovereignty over the Suez CanalZone!!  What effect wartime declarations about self-determination, freedom of nations and the like (e.g., the Atlantic Charter of 1941) and the UN San Francisco Conference in1945 had in exciting Egyptian national demands is difficult to say. 

Yet the repercussions of this vague initial Anglo-Egyptian exchange of Notes were about to be immediate and violent.  


 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 42.  In this episode:   In January 1946 all political parties and groups had been agitating for the abrogation of the 1936 Treaty.  Inflammatory editorials in their Press organs calling the people to combat and sacrifice fanned this agitation. 

They publicized Britain's unwillingness to negotiate the end of their bases in the country. When the exchange of Notes became public, the reaction came primarily from the younger clientele of these groups: the student and workers' organizations. Already, a serious strike of over thirty thousand textile workers in Mehalla Kubra and Shubra al-Khayma near Cairo had begun, which late in the summer had spread to Alexandria and elsewhere. Student organizations sent a petition to the King urging him to accelerate the government's efforts in resolving the question of Anglo-Egyptian relations. 

 
 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 43. 
 

 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE #   44      .                                                                                                                                                                                  
 

 

 

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 45.                                                                                                                                                                                    

 

 AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 46.                                                                                                                                                                                  
 
 AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 47.                                                                                                                                                                                  
 
 AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF PRIME MINISTERS OF EGYPT- 1878-1952.  BY KAMAL KARIM KATBA. EPISODE # 48.                                                                                                                                                                                  

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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