By sacking the Mustafa El-Nahas Pasha’s Cabinet, with its huge Parliamentary majority and public popularity and support, it could be safely assumed that the young King Farouk, who was also as popular as the Wafd Party, started his reign with the wrong foot!!  It is fair to say that the boy King, with his unfinished education and lack of experience, was manipulated by his Palace advisers and Aly Maher Pasha in this instance; unfortunately for him and the Monarchy, King Farouk kept listening to the advises of the Royal Cabinet and even those of the Court’s subalterns until his demise on July 26, 1952!!

To replace the Wafdist Cabinet King Farouk called upon Mohammad Mahmoud Pasha (1), the leader of the Opposition in the House of Deputies and leader of the Liberal Constitutional Party, to form a new Cabinet on condition that it would be a national Cabinet that would include representatives of all the then existing political parties except the Wafd Party.  That animosity between King and Wafd would dominate the political life of Egypt until the exile of the King.

The instruction given by the Royal Palace to the newly appointed Prime Minister was to form a stable Cabinet representing all parties but the Wafd which indirectly meant to avoid at all cost the threat of the huge Wafdist majority in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.  The only way to abide by the Palace’s will was to dissolve the Parliament and call for new elections.  This having been done, the Wafdist Deputies and Senators refused to vacate the Parliament building which forced the new Premier to use police force to enforce the Royal Decree.

Disbanding the Wafdist Parliament was not enough to establish a stable Government while a sizable part of the Civil Service were appointed by the previous Wafdist Cabinets and fiercely loyal to their Party.  This being the case, the Cabinet fired those it felt had doubtful loyalty and replaced them with supporters of the Parties that formed the new Cabinet.  Unfortunately for Egypt, that business of appointing relatives and supporters to the key public service positions would become the norm no matter what parties run the Government.

Since the main objective of the new Cabinet was to organize and call for new elections and since it would be the role of the Ministry of Interior to supervise those elections, all the vital positions at that Ministry were filled by loyal and supportive elements!!  As a result of the above, the Parliamentary candidates representing the Government’s coalition parties received all kind of support while the Wafdist candidates were bitterly fought against.

One of the main achievements of the Cabinet, during that period, was the institution of the position of Inspector General of The Army and, at the request of the Cabinet, a Royal Decree was issued appointing Lt. General (FARIQ) Aziz Al-Masry Pasha  (2) to that new and vital position.  El-Masry Pasha had a long military experience in the Ottoman Army during the Balkan Wars and fought with the Libyan rebels of Omar Al Mokhtar against the Italian occupation of that country; he was also one of the leaders of the secret military society “EL-A’HD”, which was composed of Arab Officers in the Ottoman Army and whose objective was the independence of the Arab Nations.  Needless to say that the new Inspector General was received with open arms by all the ranks of the Egyptian Armed Forces. 

Generally speaking the Cabinet gave the Army its very special interest through modernization and the building of several military hospitals; it also authorized the purchase of six new military planes to form an extra squadron with extra flying schools to train more flying officers; it approved a budget of seven thousands and seven hundred pounds for these projects.

The Cabinet adopted the very important step of supplying fresh clean and potable water in many villages and it also ordered the formation of mobile medical units to go from one village to another looking after the medical needs of their population.  The Cabinet also reduced the interest rate to five percent which certainly helped borrowing merchants and farmers.

To enhance its popularity, the Cabinet declared a general amnesty for those imprisoned for political reasons during the rule of the Wafd party; it also prohibited the formation of partisan military groups and disbanded the Green Shirts group of the “MISR AL FATAT” movement and the Blue Shirts group of the Wafd party.

The Parliamentary elections took place on April 1938 with predictable results; of a total number of two hundred and sixty four seats, Mahmoud Pasha’s party won one hundred and ninety three seats while the Wafd party won only twelve seats;  the rest of the seats were won by the other coalition parties.  It is interesting to note that neither Mustafa Al-Nahas Pasha, the leader of the Wafd, nor Makram Ebeid Pasha, its General Secretary, won their seats!!

During the tenure of the second Mahmoud Pasha’s Cabinet, the young King celebrated his wedding to Safinaz Zulfikar, daughter of Zulfikar Sabri Pasha the Vice-President of the MIXED APPEAL COURT, on January 20, 1938.  The marriage was extremely well received because of the attractiveness of the young married couple plus the fact that the Royal bride came from modest background. 

The young King had his bride’s name changed to Farida thus continuing his father’s obsession with names starting with the letter “F”.

After announcing the result of the newly held elections, the Cabinet felt that it achieved well the mission for which it was appointed in the first place and Mahmoud Pasha presented the resignation of his Cabinet to the King on April 27, 1938.

The King requested Mohammad Mahmoud Pasha to form a new Cabinet that would reflect and represent all the political parties represented in the new Parliament except the Wafd Party but Mahmoud Pasha felt that his party, the Liberal Constitutional Party, which obtained the largest amount of seats in the House of Deputies, has earned the right to have a majority in the Cabinet he was tasked to form.  He also claimed that he and his party should be rewarded for eliminating the Wafd’s dominance of the Parliament for the last few years.  That difference between the appointed Prime Minister and the Royal Palace delayed for three weeks the choice of the Cabinet members and the Royal decree appointing the Cabinet.  The Premier reluctantly accepted the Palace’s wishes but more conflicts emerged particularly concerning the appointment of the Minister of War that, because of the growth of the Egyptian Armed Forces, was to assume a major importance in the Cabinet.  Mahmoud Pasha’s insistence on appointing a member of his party for that Ministry aggravated the conflict.

Meanwhile, the Wafd Party jumped on the opportunity created by that conflict and organized large streets demonstration accusing the previous Cabinet of manipulating the result of the last Parliamentary election.  The streets unrest resulted with the King and his Prime Minister shelving their conflicts and issuing the Royal Decree necessary for the new Cabinet to start governing.

The international political situation prevailing at that time and the general feeling that a world military conflict was at the horizon gave the Egyptian Ministry of War a dominating importance within the Cabinet.  As a result, the Cabinet agreed to raise the number of new yearly recruits to the Royal Military College to six hundred to face the ever increasing expansion of the different branches of the armed forces. 

At the request of the King, the Cabinet approved the formation of a riding military musical ride (SAWARI) with a preliminary budget of six thousand nine hundred and ten pounds (that newly formed musical ride rose to become one of the best at the international level).

The Cabinet established a new cadre for the public servants regulating their appointments and promotion based strictly on merit, to be implemented as from May first, 1938.  It also authorized the Minister of Interior to expel from the country any foreigner deemed dangerous to the public safety of Egypt (PERSONA NON GRATA) on condition of obtaining the Cabinet’s green light.

In spite of the Parliamentary majority that the Cabinet enjoyed, the conflicts between the Prime Minister and Aly Maher Pasha the Chief of the Royal Cabinet never ceased to the point that co-existence between the two became impossible.  To put an end to that situation and perfectly assured of the King’s support, Maher Pasha resigned his position at the Royal Palace but, when the King, as anticipated, refused to accept it, the Prime Minister presented his which was accepted by the King on June 24, 1938.

Mahmoud Pasha accepted the request of the Sovereign to form a new Cabinet and hoping to put an end to the conflict with the Palace (read Aly Maher Pasha), he accepted to give the newly formed SAADIST PARTY (an offshoot of the Wafd Party) and its leader, Ahmed Maher Pasha, the brother of Aly Maher, a major role in his new Cabinet.

The cloud of war becoming more and more visible, the new Cabinet’s policy was dominated by largely improving the military preparation of the Country.  For that purpose the Cabinet allocated the amount of three hundred and fifty thousand pounds for the purchase of a million gas masks for both military and civilian use.  An extra budget of ten thousand pounds was allocated for the purpose of air raids sirens from the Swedish Ericson Company.  The Cabinet agreed to declare military training compulsory in all Government high schools and universities. 

The military budget was increased by one million pounds for the purchase of twenty three training planes as required by the newly formed Royal Aviation Academy and the enforcement of the navy and the coast guards with the purchase of one escort military ship, four mines sweepers and four torpedo boats.  Another million pounds, echeloned on three years, were decreed for the creation of small arms and ammunition industry.  The Cabinet also decided to partly dry the Mariout Lake, in Alexandria, for the purpose of building a civilian airport (the actual Nuzha Airport) while the existing Dakhila Airport would strictly become a military airport.  Lastly, the Cabinet changed the name of the Ministry of War into the Ministry of National Defense.

To be able to face the huge expenditure needed for the defense of the Country, the Cabinet submitted to the Parliament a complete re-structure of the taxation laws.  The new laws would impose taxes not only on properties but also on incomes and profits; not only would it immensely increase the revenue of the Nation but such a tax would be more fair by the spreading the taxation load on all earners no matter the source of their earnings.  These changes having added much more work on the shoulders of the Taxation Administration, the Parliament voted in favor of largely increasing its personnel.

On August 26, 1938, the Cabinet agreed to the request, presented by the Minister of Public Instruction to establish a University in Alexandria (3)starting with a Medical, Law and Letters Faculties plus two schools of Agriculture and Commerce.  The special budget requested by the Cabinet for that purpose was promptly authorized by the Parliament.

On August 27, 1938, the statues of Saad Zaghloul Pasha (4) in both Cairo and Alexandria were inaugurated in a large official and popular ceremony presided by the King.  A statue of Mustafa Kamel Pasha, the founding father of the National Party, was erected in “SAWARES” Square, in Cairo, which became Mustafa Kamel Square.

The Cabinet agreed to send an official delegation to attend a conference in London at the invitation of the British Government.  The Conference was to discuss the situation in Palestine that turned from bad to worse as the result of the Arab Rebellion over there (AL THAWRA AL ARABYA AL KOBRA) (5); a budget of two thousand pounds was allocated not only to cover the expenses of the Egyptian participants but also those of other Arab Countries!

At a time when balanced budgets seemed to be a political must, the Cabinet decided to freeze all appointments and promotions of civil servants except in rare situations such as that of the expansion of the Taxation Administration; it also agreed to reduce the salaries of the Cabinet Ministers from three thousand to two thousand five hundred pounds a year as from May first 1939.

On January 22, 1939, the Cabinet agreed to raise the status of the Egyptian representation in Iran from Legation to Embassy. On that same date the Cabinet allocated the amount of one thousand seven hundred and fifty pounds for the Royal Yacht “AL MAHROUSA” to sail to Beirut, Lebanon to pick up His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince of Iran on his way to Egypt; the amount of two thousand seven hundred pounds were allocated to prepare the palace of Mohammad Taher Pasha for His Highness residence while in Egypt. 

On March 26, 1938, the Cabinet agreed to send to Iran a detachment of the Egyptian Army to attend and participate in the military parades that would take in Tehran on the occasion of the marriage of Princess Fawzia, sister of King Farouk, to the Iranian Crown Prince; the budget allocated to cover those expenses and those of Queen Nazli, the Queen Mother of Egypt, and that of other members of the Royal Family and their entourage have been kept secret!!
The Cabinet appointed Ahmad Lutfi El Sayed Pasha (6) to the position of Dean of the Fouad the First University with a yearly salary of one thousand four hundred pounds a year; it also agreed to add the years that Taha Hussein Bey, the Dean of the Faculty of Letters, spend at the Sorbonne University, in Paris, to his years of service. 

March 15 of each year was declared an Independence Day and November13 a National Struggle Day.

Since day one of his fourth appointment as Prime Minister, Mahmoud Pasha’s health has been declining slowly but surely; only his sense of duty, at a time when he felt that Egypt needed all his effort, prevented him from resigning his Cabinet; but, when he heard that Aly Maher Pasha was preparing himself to assume the Premiership of the land and even went as far as approaching some members of the Cabinet inviting them to join a Cabinet led by him (Maher Pasha), Mahmoud Pasha submitted to the King the resignation of his Cabinet which was accepted on August 18, 1939.

(To be continued)

Kamal Karim Katba







In May, 1941, the press report that one time former chief of staff of the Egypian army, General Aziz el Masri Pasha, then suspected of pro-Nazi sympathies, was arrested with two acomplices, attempting to flee from Egypt to escape arrest.

In March, 1942, it is disclosed that the general, and his two accomplices (Egyptian Air Force officers), had been released from custody on the orders of Premier Mustapha el Nahas Pasha.

In the fall of 1951, the daily newspaper Al Misri reported that General Aziz El Masry, former C-inC of the Egyptian army, had been asked to command the "Liberation Legions" forming to fight against British occupation. It is claimed that the general circulated a 64-page "Guerilla Textbook, profusely illustrated with drawings of British soldiers impaled on Egyptian bayonets, and being killed by Egyptian commados."

I have been unsuccessful in discovering any further mention of the gentleman under review until March 14, 1953, when the Winnipeg Free Press printed the following:, 

"ENVOY TO MOSCOW CAIRO (Reuters) The Kremlin has approved the appointment of Field Marshal Aziz El Masry, one of Egypt's best-known soldiers, as ambassador to Moscow. 

El Masry led the "liberation battalions" that fought British troops in the Suez Canal Zone last year."

In December of 1953, the newspaper Al Gumhurryia said Lt. Gen. Aziz El Masri had been recalled from Moscow to join in talks here in Cairo. Official sources said Egypt wants to have a well-defined foreign policy before resuming talks with Britain on the Suez question. From this point on, the trail goes cold.

Those members whose interest has been aroused by this topic, may wish to know that I intend to upload the contemporary newspaper reports referred to above, to my photostream in the next day or so


Alexandria University  is a university in Alexandria, Egypt. It was established in 1938 as a satellite of Fuad University (the name of which was later changed to Cairo University), becoming an independent entity in 1942. It was known as Farouk University until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 when its name was changed to the University of Alexandria. Taha Hussein was the founding rector of Alexandria University. It is now the second largest university in Egypt and has many affiliations to various universities for ongoing research.


A war not known about that took place in Egyptian politics during 1938 was one that could be described as a "war of statues". Professor Yunan Labib Rizk writes that all of the influential political powers in the arena that year and up until 1942 took part

The war of the statues began on the occasion of the completion of the Saad Zaghloul statue erected in Alexandria. Upon the dismissal of El-Nahhas Pasha's government on 30 December 1937, only a few final touches remained related to the lighting and the design of a base that the Wafdist government did not have enough time to complete.

The first reference to the war was in the form of a long article published by an Al-Ahram reader, Amin El-Gharib, in the 3 January 1938 issue. It occupied an expansive area of pages one and 11, and was titled "Talk of statutes -- on the occasion of the unveiling of Saad's statue."

"Preparations were hastily under way to unveil the statue of Saad Zaghloul in Alexandria at the time of the dismissal of El-Nahhas Pasha's government at the end of 1937. Some imagined that the celebration of this occasion, the like of which the king was accustomed to heading, would be delayed for an undetermined period of time as had happened previously during the reign of King Fouad with the unveiling of the "Egypt's Renaissance" statue. Yet many matters had changed since the end of that king's reign and the beginning of the reign of his successor, the young boy.

On the one hand, Farouq did not hold the same animosity towards Saad Zaghloul or the nationalist movement that had existed during his father's reign, particularly as he had surrounded himself with a number of men of acumen, foremost Ali Maher, who were smarter than involving the palace in such superficial issues. On the other, the political arena had changed with the departure of El-Nuqrashi Pasha and Ahmed Maher from the Wafd Party and their declaration of being closer to and more representative of the statue's bearer. They even called themselves "Saadists," and called those who remained in the Wafd Party under the old leadership "El-Nahhasists."

They formed a faction composed of the strongest factions of the coalition government formed under the premiership of Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha. It won the greatest share in the council of representatives in the election held following the dissolution of the Wafdist parliament subsequent to the dismissal of the El-Nahhas government. It was natural that after all this change each party would attempt to prove that it was responsible for the rush to unveil the statue of the late leader in Alexandria.

From yet another perspective, the intensifying pitch of the battle between the two parties reminded the members of the old Watani Party. Following the death of the late nationalist leader Mustafa Kamel Pasha in 1908, Egyptians had contributed to the collection of the funds necessary to erect a stature of him. Yet matters quickly shifted following his death with the shrinking of the Watani Party, particularly after the 1919 revolution and the Wafd Party and Saad Zaghloul occupying the leadership. Yet when the occasion of the unveiling of Saad Zaghloul's statue arose, Watani Party members seized the opportunity and became one of the parties to the coalition formed by Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha. Thus, a new element was added to what rightfully gained the name "the battle of statues," which began directly following the appearance of Amin El-Gharib's article and which lasted throughout 1938.

THE EARLIEST NEWS of the first battle over the unveiling of Saad's statue in Alexandria incited suspicion. The news appeared on 15 January and stated that winds had been strong over the previous weeks and had torn part of the covering placed over the statue to the point that a section of its back was visible. It went on to say that the Ministry of Public Works had placed a new covering of white silk over the statue "until His Majesty the King can unveil it, although the date of the celebration has not yet been determined."

Discussion of the issue dried up for about five months when one of the Saadist members of the council of representatives asked the minister of public works, Hussein Sirri Pasha, who was affiliated to the royal palace, about the date for the unveiling of the statue of the "eternal leader." His reply was that it would take place after work was completed in building the necessary construction around the statue in terms of fences, slanting roofs, reflective lights, and about a month following, that the square would be organised and the garden would be landscaped, and... have mercy on me!

The matter took up about another three months when one of the Alexandrian newspapers published that the king would unveil the statue on 27 July, and that it had reservations over this because the department of construction had not done "what was asked of it in terms of organising the statue's base and building steps under it. Neither has the municipality landscaped the garden in which the statue is erected." This news item was the equivalent of a cue to begin the battle of statues.

The very next day there was news that a number of "Wafd committees" in numerous districts of Cairo, Damietta, Quwisna and Heheya would hold celebrations to honour the anniversary of the late leader's death. In response was news that "Saadist Union committees" in Al-Gamaliya, Al-Ezbekiya, Abdin, Alexandria, Akhmim and Aswan would hold celebrations for the same occasion.

Observers in the palace did not fail to comprehend the purport of these celebrations. Only two days passed before the government announced that the celebration for the unveiling of the statue would be on Saturday 27 August but with a change. After it had been determined that King Farouq himself would undertake this duty, Ahmed Khesheba, the minister of justice, was deputised to it. "At the head of those invited are the honourable members of the royal household, the members of the senate and the council of representatives, the members of the judiciary, scholars, religious figures, and members of the diplomatic corps. Heading the ministers present will be Their Excellencies Ahmed Maher and El-Nuqrashi Pasha, as well as the honourable lady, the mother of Egyptians [Sophia Zaghloul, Saad's wife]."

The closer the date of the unveiling celebration approached, the more intense the battle between the El-Nahhasists and the Saadists grew. This was revealed by the celebrations held on 23 August, on the occasion of the anniversary of the passing away of the great leader. The El-Nahhasists gathered that morning in the Saadist Club and went to Saad's tomb, where a spacious tent was erected for that evening's recitation of the Qur'an. The Saadists gathered in the Saad Zaghloul Club and then went to the tomb and then to "the mother of Egyptians," and erected a large tent at Ismailia palace.

It appears that the lords of Abdin had regained their sense of danger in the king not participating in this celebration, as it was mentioned that the council of ministers met two days before the festivities to amend parts of the speech which the government's representative was to make on the occasion. The change was not limited to the speech but rather extended to the celebration itself. It was decided that the king would attend, a fact established by Al-Ahram when it reported that it had been decided to set up a raised throne in the centre of the area "allocated for the seating of His Majesty the King. Around him will sit Their Excellencies the Vice Premier and the Ministers. One of the royal guard's music troupes will be mandated to play the royal anthem. The celebration's programme will begin with the Vice Premier giving a speech and then turning to His Majesty and requesting him to remove the curtain, at which point the King will rise and press a button especially prepared for that purpose."

On the day determined for raising the curtain, Al-Ahram published on its front page an article titled, "Eternalising the meaning of Saad." It began with the following words: "Today Saad rises again on his feet in the world of bodies at the entrance to the sea and at the heart of the Nile, but an everlasting rising that refuses to decline." It included a poem by Ali El-Garim Bey, an excerpt of which follows:

You lived free, and so the best companionfor you after life is the open air

The birds boast of the leader, fluttering their wings with love and loyalty

As the country sings of Saad, 

the sky responds in song

The following day, on 28 August 1938, Al-Ahram offered a detailed description of what took place at the celebration in Alexandria. It began by pointing out that it was the third El-Nahhas government that had decided in 1936 to take the measures to erect the statue, and that it had charged an Italian sculptor with fashioning it. A site was chosen for it on a spot next to the Ramla tram station between the Italian consulate and the Cecil Hotel, in front of a grand line of imposing buildings in the direction of the eastern port. 

In August 1937, the statue arrived from abroad. Its base was 14.5 metres square and its height reached 5.5 metres. The garden surrounding it was nearly 10,000 metres square "and the costs of constructing the base reached nearly LE7,000, while the costs of the sculpture's construction was LE5,000."

As for the celebration, it caught the attention of the Al-Ahram reporter in the port city that the large pavilions set up in the area were filled to the brim with revellers and those invited, who numbered nearly 1,000. At the head of them was the prime minister and the ministers, the staff of the royal palace and a number of former ministers, representatives from all the religious sects, many businessmen, members of the chamber of commerce, and lawyers, in addition to the masses on the streets who surrounded the area hoping to see the sight of the veil being removed and the statue being revealed.

Yet the Al-Ahram reporter also recorded two important observations related to the ongoing war. The first was that the "mother of Egyptians" did not attend the celebration despite the attempts of Ahmed Maher and El-Nuqrashi to have her change her mind, as well as the repeated attempts by Ali Maher, the head of the royal court, and Abdel-Fattah Yehyia, the deputy prime minister. Yet the wife of the statue's bearer held firm to her position, and we may interpret that as Mrs Sofia Zaghloul not wanting to get involved in the differences held between the El-Nahhasists and the Saadists. She considered them all the children of Saad, and she had expressed her anger over the split between the two when she barred both of them from holding their meetings in Beit Al-Umma [Zaghloul's home].

The second observation was that the Wafd Party under the leadership of El-Nahhas Pasha, despite the statue being constructed during its term, had preferred to boycott the celebration. The successor to the leader who was the statue bearer was intentionally outside the country on this occasion, in Montecatini, where he was spending part of the summer. 

He was greatly pleased by the "mother of Egyptians" not attending the unveiling celebration. He telegraphed her and expressed his being touched by the position of her not attending "the celebration of the unveiling of Saad's statue in the absence of your children deeply devoted to his memory. I thank you with all my heart."

With the exception of that, the traditional customs of raising the curtain were held. The king arrived at 5pm and stood next to the deputy prime minister who gave a short speech that suggested loyalty to the king more than fidelity to the statue bearer. At the end, the king raised the curtain.

Farouq approached the statute and most of those gathered walked behind him. "He ascended several steps to the level of the base. The ground around the base was covered with plant ornamentation, and the steps were covered with a red carpet. His Majesty grabbed the cord tied to the statue's curtain and tugged it, and the curtain fell. Saad Pasha was revealed, standing straight with his head held high. Everyone in the area clapped spiritedly, and the crowds cheered for the king and the memory of Saad." This cheering ended the first battle in the war of statues.

THE SECOND BATTLE revolved around the statue of Mustafa Kamel. It began when one of his supporters, Shoukri Hafiz, formed a committee to work on bringing out the statue of Mustafa Kamel, Egypt's first leader, as he put it, after being imprisoned all those years. It was a call that was adopted by Muhammad Ali Alouba Pasha, the head of the lawyers' guild, who wrote to Al-Ahram about how this act would renew the memory of the youth of their heroes and make them visible "so as to serve as an upright model. I don't want to have to remind people that the statue of Mustafa Kamel is present, but imprisoned in his school, and that setting it up would not cost much."

The committee to erect the statue of Mustafa Kamel in one of the capital's squares grew remarkably quickly. Branches of it spread in a number of the university's colleges and a committee delegation visited the home of the prime minister, Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha, who expressed to them his conviction that Mustafa Kamel had undertaken momentous work, and that "the least he deserves is a statue of him to be placed in one of the most important squares of the capital."

On this occasion, someone who described himself as an "Alexandrian historian" wrote to remind the old supporters of the Watani Party to strive to make officials allow them to erect the statue of the first Egyptian national hero. He ended his words with a request that stemmed from his affiliation to his city when he wrote, "How nice it would be if the ministry permitted erecting this statue in the city of Alexandria, for it is a city the deceased loved. He chose its stages from which to give his enthusiastic nationalist speeches."

At the same time, a women's committee was formed to get across the same message. It was led by the wife of Osman Labib, and called itself "The ladies' committee for bringing out the imprisoned statue." It issued a statement that laid out the glorious deeds of the late leader: the journalist who turned his newspaper into an open school for the people, the man of society who set examples for people that progress not supported by strong, upright morals is on its way to collapse and national destruction, the man whose love of Egypt steered his heart and soul. The statement ended by asking all Egyptians, not only a certain institution or party, to participate in the noble nationalist effort "to bring out the statue. which the nation has funded." 

At the same time, the committee succeeded in gaining the support of a number of prominent personalities, led by Prince Omar Touson, who made the following statement to its members: "I agree with all my heart that this statue of Mustafa Kamel Pasha, built with the people's money, should be released. This is not a wonder, for he placed the foundation stone of the nationalist renaissance. I believe that his statue should have been released long ago." 

On 7 February 1938, a public meeting was held in the courtyard of the Mustafa Kamel School, where his statue stood. It was attended by members of the committees in the Egyptian and Azhar universities and the college of science. Speeches were given, and then the participants went to the Ministry of Education where they met the minister, who recommended that they submit their proposal to the cabinet at the first opportunity in order for it to be studied. A higher committee was formed led by Alouba Pasha. It included among its members the lawyer Fikri Abaza, a professor in the college of commerce Ali El-Zini, professors in the college of law Wahid Ra'fat and Ali Abu Heif, and two instructors in the college of engineering Ibrahim Rifaat and Ibrahim Osman.

Members of the Watani Party did not miss this opportunity. Abdel-Rahman El-Rafai Bey wrote a long article in the 10 February edition of Al-Ahram titled "Mustafa Kamel -- the 30th anniversary of the founder of the nationalist movement." In it he offered a summary of the life of this spiritual leader and the role he had played in leading the nationalist movement. At the end of the article, its purpose was revealed when the author asked Egyptians to show loyalty to the late leader and stated that "releasing his statue from its imprisonment is the first sign of this loyalty."

Hafiz Ramadan Pasha, president of the Watani Party, did the same thing when he wrote to Al-Ahram that he had received an open letter from the owner of the French La Liberte newspaper expressing his surprise that the statue of Mustafa Kamel remained imprisoned in the school bearing his name, and that he did not know how Egyptians had failed to grasp the opportunity of the date on which the Egyptian leader had departed this world -- 10 February -- to hold a celebration for him.

Despite the many requests, the cabinet did not move on this until early September, when it studied the matter in one of its meetings and took the decision to erect the statue of the deceased in Ataba Square in Cairo, which at that time had the name Queen Farida. The necessary measures were taken to implement this decision in a short period of time.

The decision was met with various opinions in the partisan press. While newspapers inimical to the Wafd Party welcomed it, Al-Jihad newspaper, which was issued at that time by the Wafd Party, saw it as a "new spirit of appreciation for men." Another Wafdist newspaper, Al-Misri, viewed it as a response to the "wave of anger that has washed over the government due to the virtuous and honourable lady, the mother of Egyptians, excusing herself from attending the celebration for the unveiling of the statue of the eternal leader Saad in Alexandria."

It appears that the opinion of the Wafdist press had some credit, evidenced by the development of subsequent events. The government charged the department of construction with drafting the design for the base of the statue in the square agreed upon, and the work was to take six months to be completed, during which time the ministry changed its position.

Officials claimed during that period that the statute was too small to be placed in such a large square, and it was decided to erect it in the smaller Sawaris Square, which was famous as a stop for the cars of the company bearing this name. 

Despite the protests of some newspapers, the square is where the statue eventually was placed, and the name of the square changed from Sawaris to Mustafa Kamel.


Historians are at odds with each other with regard to the different incidents that took place in various places as the reason for the outbreak of the 1936 revolt. 

According to Yehuda Bauer, "the incident that is commonly regarded as the start of the 1936 disturbances" occurred on 19th April 1936, when Palestinian Arab crowds in Jaffa attacked Jewish passers-by. 

In the view of Isa al-Sifri60, Salih Mas'ud Buwaysir and Subhi Yasin62, the first spark was lit when an unknown group of Palestinian Arabs (Subhi Yasin describes it as a Qassamist group including Farhan al-Sa'udi and Mahmud Dairawi) ambushed fifteen cars on the road from Anabta and the Nur Shams prison, robbed their Jewish and Arab passengers alike of their money, while one of the three members of the group made a short speech to the Palestinian Arabs, who formed the majority of the passengers, in which, according to al-Sifri, he said "We are taking your money so that we can fight the enemy and defend you."

Dr. Abd al-Wahhab al-Kayyali thinks that the first spark was lit before that - in February 1936, when an armed band of Palestinian Arabs surrounded a school which Jewish contractors were building in Haifa, employing Jewish-only labor.

But all sources rightly believe that the Qassamist rising, sparked off by Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam was the real start of the 1936 revolt. 

However, the report of the Royal Commission (Lord Peel) which Yehuda Bauer regards as one of the more authoritative sources written about the Palestine problem, sidesteps (ignores) these immediate causes for the outbreak of the revolt, and attributes the outbreak to two main causes: the Arabs' desire to win national independence and their aversion to, and fear of, the establishment of the "Jewish national home" in Palestine. 

It is not difficult to see that these two causes are really only one, and the words in which they are couched are inflated and convey no precise meaning. 

However, Lord Peel mentions what he calls "secondary factors" which contributed to the outbreak of the "disturbances." These are: 

The spread of the Arab nationalist spirit outside Palestine

Increasing Jewish immigration since 1933. 

The fact that the Jews were able to influence public opinion in Britain. The lack of Palestinian Arab confidence in the good intentions of the British government. The Palestinian Arabs' fear of continued land purchases by Jews. The fact that the ultimate objectives of the Mandatory government were not clear.65 
The way the then-leadership of the Palestinian national movement understood the causes can be deduced from the three slogans with which it adorned all its demands. These were: 

An immediate stop to Jewish immigration. 

Prohibition of the transfer of the ownership of Palestinian Arab lands to Jewish settlers. 

The establishment of a democratic government in which Palestinian Arabs would have the largest share in conformity with their numerical superiority.

But these slogans, in the bombastic versions in which they were repeated, were quite incapable of expressing the real situation, and in fact to a great extent all they did was to perpetuate the control of the feudal leadership over the nationalist movement. 

In fact the real cause of the revolt was the fact that the acute conflicts involved in the transformation of Palestinian society from an Arab agricultural-feudal-clerical one into a Zionist (Western) industrial bourgeois one, had reached their climax, as we have already seen. 

The process of establishing the roots of colonialism and transforming it from a British mandate into Zionist settler colonialism, as we have seen, reached its climax in the mid-thirties, and in fact the leadership of the Palestinian nationalist movement was obliged to adopt a certain form of armed struggle because it was no longer capable of exercising its leadership at a time when the conflict had reached decisive proportions. 

A variety of conflicting factors played a role in inducing the Palestinian then-leadership to adopt the form of armed struggle: 

Firstly: the Izz al-Din al-Qassam movement. 

Secondly: The series of failures sustained by this leadership at a time when they were at the helm of the mass movement, even with regard to the minor and partial demands that the colonialists did not usually hesitate to yield to, in the hope of absorbing resentment. (The British took a long time to see the value of this manoeuvre; however, their interests were safeguarded through the existence of competent Zionist agents.) 

Thirdly: Zionist violence (the armed bands, the slogan of "Jewish labor only," etc. ) in addition to colonialist violence (the manner in which the 1929 rising had been suppressed.) 

In any discussion of the 1936-1939 revolt, a special place must be reserved for Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam. In spite of all that has been written about him, it is not too much to say that this unique personality is still really unknown, and will probably remain so. Most of what has been written about him has dealt with him only from the outside and because of this superficiality in the study of personality several Jewish historians have not hesitated to regard him as a "fanatical dervish," while many Western historians have ignored him altogether. In fact it is clear that it is the failure to grasp the dialectical connection between religion and nationalist tendencies that is responsible for the belittling of the importance of the Qassamist movement. 

However, whatever view is held of al-Qassam, there is no doubt that his movement (12th-19th November 1935) represented a turning point in the nationalist struggle and played an important role in the adoption of a more advanced form of struggle in confrontation with the traditional leadership which had become divided and splintered in the face of the mounting struggle. 

Probably the personality of al-Qassam in itself constituted the symbolic point of encounter of that great mass of interconnected factors which, for the purposes of simplification, has come to be known as the "Palestine problem." The fact that he was "Syrian" (born in Jabala on the periphery of Latakia) exemplified the Arab nationalist factor in the struggle. The fact that he was an Azharist (he studied at Al-Azhar) exemplifies the religious-nationalist factor represented by Al-Azhar at the beginning of the century. The fact that he had a record of engaging in nationalist struggle (took part in the Syrian revolt against the French at Jabal Horan in 1919-1920 and was condemned to death) exemplified the unity of Arab struggle. 

Al-Qassam came to Haifa in 1921 with the Egyptian Sheikh Muammad al-Hanafi and Sheikh Ali al-Hajj Abid and immediately started to form secret groups. What is remarkable in al-Qassam's activities is his advanced organizational intelligence and his steel-strong patience. In 1929, he refused to be rushed into announcing that he was under arms and, in spite of the fact that this refusal led to a split in the organization, it did succeed in holding together and remaining secret. 

According to a well-known Qassamist, al-Qassam programmed his revolt in three stages, psychological preparation and the dissemination of a revolutionary spirit, the formation of secret groups, the formation of committees to collect contributions and others to purchase arms, committees for training, for security, espionage, propaganda and information and for political contacts - and then armed revolt. 

Most of those who knew al-Qassam say that when he went out to the Ya'bad hills with 25 of his men on the night of 12th November 1935, his object was not to declare the armed revolt but to spread the call for the revolt, but that an accidental encounter led to his presence there being disclosed, and in spite of the heroic resistance of al-Qassem and his men, a British force easily destroyed them. It appears that when he realized that he could no longer expand the revolt with his comrades, Sheikh al-Qassam adopted his famous slogan: "Die as Martyrs." 

It is due to al-Qassam that we should understand this slogan in a "Guevarist" sense, if we may use the expression, but at the ordinary nationalist level, the little evidence we possess of al-Qassam's conduct shows that he was aware of the importance of his role as the initiator of an advanced revolutionary focus. 

This slogan was to bear fruit immediately. The masses followed their martyr's body 10 kilometres on foot to the village of Yajur. But the most important thing that happened was the exposing of the traditional leaders in the face of the challenge constituted by Sheikh al-Qassam. 

These leaders were as conscious of the challenge as was the British Mandate. 

According to one Qassamist, a few months before al-Qassam went into the hills he sent to Hajj al-Amin al-Hussaini, through Sheikh Musa al-Azrawi, to ask him to coordinate declarations of revolt throughout the country. Hussaini refused, however, on the ground that conditions were not yet ripe. When Al-Qassam was killed his funeral was attended only by poor people. 

The leaders adopted an indifferent attitude, which they soon realized was a mistake. For the killing of al-Qassam was an occurrence of outstanding significance which they could not afford to ignore. Proof of this is to be found in the fact that representatives of the five Palestinian parties visited the British High Commissioner only six days after the killing of al-Qassam, and submitted to him an extraordinarily impudent memorandum in which they admitted that "if they did not receive an answer to this memorandum which could be regarded as generally satisfactory, they would lose all their influence over their followers, extremist and irresponsible views would prevail and the situation would deteriorate." They obviously wanted to exploit the phenomenon of al-Qassam to enable them to take a step backwards. 

However, by his choice of the form of struggle al-Qassam had made it impossible for them to retreat, and this in fact is what explains the difference between the attitude of the Palestinian leaders to the killing of Sheikh al-Qassam immediately after it happened, and the attitude they adopted at the ceremony held on the fortieth day after his death. During these forty days they discovered that if they did not try to mount the great wave that had been set in motion by al-Qassam, it would engulf them. They therefore cast off the indifference they had displayed at his funeral and took part in the rallies and speeches at the fortieth day ceremony. 

Clearly Hajj Amin al-Hussaini was to remain aware of this loophole in later times. Even more than twenty years later the magazine Filastine, the mouthpiece of the Arab Higher Committee, tried to give the impression that the Qassamist movement was nothing but a part of the movement led by the Mufti, and that the latter and al-Qassam had been "personal friends." 

As for the British, they told the story of al-Qassam in the report on the incidents of 1935 that they submitted to Geneva as follows: 

"There were widespread rumors that a terrorist gang had been formed at the inspiration of political and religious factors, and on November 7, 1935, a police sergeant and a constable were following up a theft in the hills of the Nazareth District, when two unknown persons fired on them, killing the sergeant. . . This incident soon led to the discovery of a gang operating in the neighborhood under the leadership of Izz al-Din al-Qassam, a political refugee from Syria who enjoyed considerable prestige as a religious leader. He had been the object of strong suspicion some years before, and he was said to have had a hand in terrorist activities." 

"Sheikh al-Qassam's funeral in Haifa was attended by very large crowds, and in spite of the efforts made by influential Muslims to keep order, there were demonstrations and stones were thrown. The death of al-Qassam aroused a wave of powerful feelings in political and other circles in the country and the Arabic newspapers agreed in calling him a martyr in the articles they wrote about him."

The British, too, were aware of the challenge represented by the killing of al-Qassam, and they too tried to put the clock back, as is shown by the view expressed by the High Commissioner in a letter he wrote to the Minister for the Colonies. In this letter he said that if the demands of the Arab leaders were not granted, "they would lose all their influence and all possibility of pacification, by the moderate means he proposed, would vanish".

But it was impossible to put the clock back, for the Qassamist movement was, in fact, an expression of the natural pattern that was capable of coping with the escalation of the conflict and settling it. It was not long before this was reflected in a number of committees and groupings, so that the traditional leadership was obliged to choose between confronting this escalating will to fight among the masses or to quell their will and to put them under their control. 

Although the British took rapid action, and proposed the idea of a legislative assembly and mooted the idea of stopping land sales, it was too late: The Zionist movement, whose will began to crystallise very firmly at that time, played its part in diminishing the effectiveness of the British offer. All the same, the leadership of the Palestinian nationalist movement had not yet decided its attitude, but was extraordinarily vacillating, and up to April 2nd, 1936 the representatives of the Palestinian parties were prepared to form a delegation to go to London to tell the British government their point of view. 

However, things blew up before the leadership of the nationalist movement intended, and when the first flames were ignited in Jaffa in February 1936, the leaders of the Palestinian nationalist movement believed that they could still obtain partial concessions from Britain through negotiations. 

But they were surprised by the following events. All who were closely associated with the events of April 1936 admit that the outbreak of violence and civil disobedience was spontaneous and that, with the exception of the acts instigated by the surviving Qassamists, everything that happened was a spontaneous expression of the critical level that the conflict had reached. 

Even when the general strike was declared on 19th April 1936 the leadership of the nationalist movement lagged behind. However, they soon got on the bandwagon before it left them behind, and succeeded, for the reasons already mentioned in our analysis of the social-political situation in Palestine, in dominating the nationalist movement. 

From the organisational point of view the Palestinian nationalist movement was represented by a number of parties, most of which were the vestiges of the anti-Ottoman movements that had arisen at the beginning of the century. This meant both that they had not engaged in a struggle for independence (as was the case in Egypt, for example) and that they were no more than general frameworks, without definite principles, controlled by groups of notables and dependent on loyalties rooted in and derived from the influence they enjoyed as religious or feudal leaders or prominent members of society; they were not parties with organised bases. 

Apart from al-Qassam himself (and the Communists, naturally) not one of the leaders of the Palestinian nationalist movement at this time possessed any organising ability; even Hajj Amin al-Hussaini, who had unusual administrative abilities, had no conception of organisation as applied to struggle. 

Organisational responsibilities were most often based on individual talents in the subcommittees and among the middle cadre. However, they were usually incapable of transforming their abilities into policy. 

On the eve of the revolt the situation of the representatives of the nationalist movement in Palestine was as follows: with the dissolution of the Arab Executive Committee in August 1934 six groups emerged: 

The Arab Palestine Party, in May 1935, headed by Jamal al-Hussaini; it more or less embodied the policy of the Mufti and represented the feudalists and big city merchants.  
The National Defence Party, headed by Raghib al-Nashashibi; founded in December 1934 it represented the new urban bourgeoisie and the senior officials.

The Independence Party, which had been founded in 1932, with Auni Abd al-Hadl at its head. It included the intellectuals, the middle bourgeoisie and some sectors of the petty-bourgeoisie; this contributed to its left wing playing a special role. 

The Reform Party which, founded by Dr Husain al-Khalidi in August 1935, represented a number of intellectuals.

The National Bloc Party, headed by Abd al-Latif Salah. 
The Palestine Youth Party, headed by Ya'qub al-Ghusain. 
This multiplicity was purely superficial; it was not a clear and definite expression of the class configuration in the country. The overwhelming majority of the masses were not represented (according to Nevill Barbour 90% of the revolutionaries were peasants who regarded themselves as volunteers). 

A glance at the class structure in Palestine in 1931 shows that 59% of the Palestinian Arabs were peasants (19.1% of the Jews), 12.9% of the Arabs worked in construction industry and mining (30.6% of the Jews). 6% of the Palestinian Arabs worked in communications, 8.4% in commerce, 1.3% in the administration, etc.73 

This means that the overwhelming majority of the, population was not represented in these parties which, although they represented the feudal and religious leaders, the urban compradors and certain sectors of the intellectuals; they were always subject to the leadership of the Mufti and his class, which represented the feudal-clerical leaders, and was more nationalist than the leadership which represented the urban bourgeoisie. The latter was represented by the effendis at a time when they were starting to invest their money in industry (this trend became more pronounced after the defeat of the 1936-1939 revolt). 

The petty-bourgeoisie in general (small traders, shopkeepers, teachers, civil servants and craftsmen) had no leadership. As a class they had had no influence and no importance under the Turkish regime, which depended on the effendi class, to which the Turks gave the right: of local government, due to the fact that it had grown in conjunction with the feudal aristocracy. 

The labour movement was newly established and weak and was, as a result, exposed to oppression by the authorities, crushing competition from the Jewish proletariat and bourgeoisie, and persecution by the leadership, of the Arab nationalist movement. 

Before the Arab Higher Committee was' formed, with, Hajj Amin al-Hussaini at its head, on 25 April 1936, Jamal al-Hussaini, the leader of the Arab Party, had been dissatisfied by people's growing belief that the English were the real enemy, and the National Defence Party which represented, first and foremost, the growing urban comprador class, was not really disposed for an open clash with the British. 

Only two days earlier, on 23 April 1936, Weizmann, the leader of the Zionist movement, had made a speech in Tel-Aviv in which he described the Arab-Zionist struggle, which was beginning to break out, as a struggle between destructive and constructive elements, thereby putting the Zionist forces in their place as the instrument of colonialism on the eve of the armed clash. This was the position on both sides of the field on the eve of the revolt! 

In the countryside the revolt assumed the form of civil disobedience and armed insurrection. Hundreds of armed men flocked to join the bands that had begun to fan out in the mountains, Non-payment of taxes was decided on at the conference held in the Raudat al-Ma'aref al-Wataniya college in Jerusalem on May 7, 1936 and was attended by about 150 delegates representing the Arabs of Palestine. A review of the names of the delegates made by Isa al-Safri74 shows that it was at this conference that the leadership of the mass movement committed itself to an unsubstantial alliance between the feudal-religious leaderships, the urban commercial bourgeoisie and a limited number of the intellectuals. The resolution adopted by this conference was brief, but it was a clear illustration of the extent to which a leadership of this kind was capable of reaching. 

"The conference decided unanimously to announce that no taxes will be paid as from May 15th, 1936 if the British government does not make a radical change in its policy by stopping Jewish immigration." 

The British response to civil disobedience and armed insurrection was to strike at two key points: the first was the organizational cadre which was, for the most part, more revolutionary than the leadership, and the second the impoverished masses who had taken part in the revolt and who in fact had nothing but their own arms to protect them. 

This goes a long way towards explaining why the only two people who were comparatively proficient at organisation - Auni Abed el-Hadi and Mohammad Azat Darwazeh - were arrested, while the rest were subjected either to arrest or to harassment to the extent that they were totally paralysed. This is shown by the fact that 61 Arabs responsible for organising the strike (the middle cadre) were arrested on May 23rd. However, these arrests did not prevent Britain from giving permits to four of the leaders of the revolt, Jamal al-Hussaini, Shibli al-Jamal, Abd al-Latif Salah and Dr Izzat Tannus to travel to London and meet the Minister for the Colonies, which took place on June 12th. There was nothing unusual about this incident, which was to be constantly repeated throughout the subsequent months and years. The British High Commissioner had observed with great satisfaction that "the Friday sermons were much more moderate than `I had expected, at a time when feelings are so strong. This was mainly due to the Mufti". 

From the outset the situation had been that the leadership of the Palestinian nationalist movement regarded the revolt of the masses as merely intended to exert pressure on British colonialism with the object of improving the conditions of the masses as a class. The British were profoundly aware of this fact, and acted accordingly. They did not, however, take the trouble to grant this class the concessions it desired; London persisted in meeting its commitments as regards handing over the colonialist heritage in Palestine to the Zionist movement and, moreover, it was during the years of the revolt - 1936-1939 - that British colonialism threw all its weight into performing the task of supporting the Zionist presence and setting it on its feet, as we shall see later. 

The British succeeded in achieving this in two ways: by striking at the poor peasant revolutionaries with unprecedented violence, and by employing their extensive influence with the Arab regimes, which played a major role in liquidating the revolt. 

Firstly: The British Emergency Regulations played an effective role. AI-Sifri cites a group of sentences passed at the time to show how unjust these regulations were: "six years' imprisonment for possessing a revolver- 12 years far possessing a bomb - five years with hard labour for possessing 12 bullets- eight months on a charge of misdirecting a detachment of soldiers. nine years on a charge of possessing explosives- five years for trying to buy ammunition from soldiers- two weeks' imprisonment for possessing a stick . . . etc."

According to a British estimate submitted to the League of Nations, the number of Palestinian Arabs killed in the 1936 revolt was about one thousand, apart from wounded, missing and interned. The British employed the policy of blowing up houses on a wide scale. In addition to blowing up and destroying part of the city of Jaffa (June 18th, 1936) where the number of houses blown up was estimated at 220 and the number of persons rendered homeless at 6,000. In addition one hundred huts were demolished in Jabalia, 300 in Abu Kabir, 350 in Sheikh Murad and  in Arab al-Daudi. It is clear that the inhabitants of the quarters that were destroyed In Jaffa and of the huts that were destroyed in the outskirts were poor peasants who had left the country for the town. In the villages, according to al-Sifri's estimate. 143 houses were blown up for reasons directly connected with the revolt. These houses belonged to poor peasants, some medium peasants and a very small number of feudal families. 

Secondly: Amir Abdullah of Transjordan and Nuri Said started to take action to mediate with the Arab Higher Committee. However, their mediation was unsuccessful, despite the readiness of the leadership to accept their good offices. But the movement of the masses was not yet ready to be domesticated in 1936 although these contacts did have a negative effect on the revolt, and left a feeling that the conflict then in progress was amenable to settlement, And in fact this initiative which started with failure was to be completely successful in October of the same year, only about seven weeks later. 

Not that these contacts were the only form assumed by the dialectic of the relations between Palestine and the neighbouring Arab countries. This dialectic was more complicated and reflected the complexity of the conflicts, We have already seen what al-Qassam represented in this field; and in fact the Qassamist phenomenon in this sense continued to exist. Large numbers of Arab freedom fighters poured into Palestine; among them were Sa'id al-As, who was killed in October 1936, Sheikh Muhammad al-Ashmar and many others. This influx also comprised a number of adventurist nationalist officers, the most prominent of whom was Fauzi al-Qawuqji who shortly after entry into Palestine at the head of a small band in August 1936 declared himself commander in chief of the revolt. 

Although these men improved and expanded the tactics of the rebels, the greater part of the burden of revolutionary violence in the country and of commando action in the towns, continued to be borne by the dispossessed peasants. In fact it was the "officers" who emerged from the ranks of the peasants themselves who continued to play the major role, but most of them were subject to the leadership of al-Mufti. They also represented legendary heroism for the masses of the revolution. 

Although the British officials in Palestine did not completely agree with London's policy of reckless support for the Zionist movement, and thought that there was room for an Arab class leadership whose interests were not linked with the revolt, to cooperate with colonialism. Britain finally accepted, so it seems, on June 19th, 1936, the "importance of the organic link between the safety of British interests and the success of Zionism in Palestine". Britain decided to strengthen its forces in Palestine and to increase repressive measures. 

Frightened by this decision, the leadership of the Palestinian nationalist movement vacillated and lost its nerve. Hajj Amin al-Hussaini, Raghib Nashashibi and Auni Abd al-Hadi hastened to meet the British High Commissioner, and it is clear from reports he sent to his government at the time they confirmed that they were prepared to end the revolt if the Arab kings asked them to do so. They did not, however, dare to admit to the masses that they were the originators; of this tortuous scheme, and repeatedly denied it. 

After this large numbers of British troops, estimated at twenty thousand, poured into Palestine, and on 30th September 1936, when they had all arrived, a decree was issued enforcing martial law. The mandatory authorities stepped up their policy of relentless repression, and September and October witnessed battles of the greatest violence - the last battles, in fact, to cover nearly the whole of Palestine. 

On 11th October 1936, the Arab Higher Committee distributed a statement calling for an end to the strike, and thereby the revolt: "Inasmuch as submission to the will of their Majesties and Highnesses, the Arab kings and to comply with their wishes is one of our hereditary Arab traditions, and inasmuch as the Arab Higher Committee firmly believes that their Majesties and Highnesses would only give orders that are in conformity with the interests of their sons and with the object of protecting their rights; the Arab Higher Committee, in obedience to tire wishes of their Majesties and Highnesses, the Kings and amirs, and from its belief ill the great benefit that will result from their mediation and cooperation, calls on the noble Arab people to end the strike and the disturbances, in obedience to these orders, whose only object is the interests of the Arabs." 

Exactly a month later (on 11th November 1936) the "General Command of the Arab Revolt in Southern Syria-­Palestine" announced that it "calls for all acts of violence to be stopped completely, and that there should be no provocation towards anything liable to disturb the atmosphere of the negotiations, which the Arab nation hopes will succeed and obtain the full rights of the country."80 Ten days later the same command issued another statement in which it declared that it had "left the field, from its confidence in the guarantee of the Arab kings and amirs, and to protect the safety of the negotiations". 

As Jamil al-Shuqairi says: "So, in obedience to the orders of the kings and amirs, the strike was called off, and the activities of the revolt came to an end within two hours of the call being published" 

Although at that time Britain was challenging the Palestinian leaderships on precisely the point over which they had deceived the masses - the question of Jewish immigration to Palestine - and although these leaders decided to boycott the Royal Commission (the Peel Commission), the Arab kings and amirs obliged these leaderships to obey them for the second time in less than three months. King Abdul Aziz Al Sa'ud and King Ghazi wrote letters to Hajj Amin al-Hussaini saying: "In view of our confidence in the good intentions of the British government to do justice to the Arabs, it is our opinion that your interest requires that you should meet the Royal Commission". In fact this incident, which appears trivial, shattered the alliance in the leadership of the nationalist movement, as the forces to the right of Hajj Amin al-Hussaini, led by the Defence Party, immediately opposed the decision to boycott the Peel Commission, and gave numerous indications of their desire to accept the settlement that Britain was to propose. The leaders of this party, which represented mainly the urban effendis, relied on the discontent felt by the big merchants in the towns and on the dislocation of the interests of the urban bourgeoisie, which depended on close economic relations embodied in the agencies they held from British, and sometimes Jewish, industrial firms. 

The Arab regimes, especially that of Transjordan, strongly supported the attitude of this right wing, and Hajj Amin al Hussaini and what he represented had no inclination to turn to the leftist front which, in fact, he had started to liquidate. Thus his attitude began to be increasingly vacillating and hesitant, and it was clear that he had got into a position where he could not take a single step forward with the revolt, and where, equally, retreat could no longer do him any good. However, when the British thought that they could now achieve the political liquidation of the Mufti in the period of quiet that followed the end of the strike, they found that this was not true, and that the Mufti's right wing was still much too weak to control the situation. The British High Commissioner maliciously continued to realise how great a role the Mufti could play while he was restricted to that position between the Defence Party on his right and the' Independence Party (its left wing) and the young intellectuals' movements on his left. This High Commissioner realised Britain's ability to take advantage of the wide margin between "the inflexibility (obstinacy) of the villagers who resisted for six months, receiving little pay but not indulging in plunder" and the weakness or non-existence of great qualities of leadership in the members of the (Arab Higher) Committee."

The correctness of the High Commissioner's view of the limited role that the Mufti's right-wing could play was shown when the Defence Party failed to take an unambiguous stand against the report of the Peel Commission, which, published on 7th July 1937, recommended partition and the establishment of a Jewish state. 

At the same time, it became clear that the High Commissioner's fear that pressure from the Mufti's left-wing might lead hum to abandon his moderate attitude was not groundless. This pressure, however, was not exerted by the quarter from which the High Commissioner had expected it, but by the middle cadre which was still represented on the national committees, and which was daily represented by groups of dispossessed peasants and unemployed workers in the cities and the countryside. 

Thus the only course left to the Mufti was to flee. He avoided arrest by taking refuge in the Haram al-Sharif, but events forced him into a position which he had not been able to take up a year earlier. In September 1937 Andrews, the District Commissioner of the Galilee district, was shot dead by four armed commandos outside the Anglican church in Nazareth. Andrews was "the only official who administered the Mandate as Zionists consider it right ... he never succeeded in winning the confidence of the Fellahin [Palestinian peasants]." The Arabs regarded him as a friend of the Zionists and believed that his task was to facilitate the transfer of Galilee to the Zionist state that had been demarcated by the partition proposal. The Arab peasants disliked him,, and accused him of facilitating the sale of the Huleh lands, and the commandos who killed him are believed to have belonged to one of the secret cells of the Qassamites.84 

Although the Arab Higher Committee condemned this incident on the same night, the situation, exactly as had happened when al-Qassam was killed, had got out of the control of the Mufti and his group, so that, if they wanted to remain at the head of the national movement, they had to hang onto it and mount the rising wave, as had happened in April 1936. 

This time, however, the revolutionary enthusiasm of the masses was more violent, not only because of the experience they had acquired during the past year, but also because the conflict that was taking place before their eyes had become increasingly clear. It is certain that this stage of the revolt was directed substantially, if not entirely, against the British rather than the Zionists. The growth of the conflict had led to the crystallisation of more clear-cut positions; the peasants were in almost complete control of the revolt, the role of the urban bourgeoisie had retreated somewhat, and the wealthy people in the country and the big middle peasants were hesitant to support the rebels, while the Zionist forces had effectively gone on the offensive. 

There are two important questions to be considered as regards this stage of the revolt: 

"The Arabs contacted the Zionists, proposing that they reach some kind of an agreement on the basis of a complete severance of relations with Britain. But the Zionists immediately rejected this, because they regarded their relations with Britain as fundamental". This was accompanied by a rise in the number of Zionists serving in the police in Palestine; from 365 in 1935 to 682 in 1936. and at the end of that year the government announced the recruitment of 1240 Zionists as additional policemen armed with army rifles. A month later the figure rose to 286386 and British officers played a prominent role in leading Zionist groups in attacks on Palestinian Arab villages.

The fact that the leadership of the revolt was outside Palestine (in Damascus) made the role of the local leadership, most of which were of poor peasant origin, more important than it had been in the previous period. These were closely linked with the peasants. This does much to explain to what extent the revolt was able to go. In this period, for example, Abd al-Rahim al-Hajj emerged as a local commander, and the Communists say that they were in contact with him and supplied him with information. This development might have constituted a historic turning point in the revolt had it not been for the weakness of the "left" in both the relative and the true sense, and had not these local commands been obliged to maintain their organisational link, to a certain extent, with the "Central Committee for Struggle" (Jihad) in Damascus, not only because of their traditional loyalty to it, but also because they depended on it to some extent for financing. 
In the whole history of the Palestinian struggle the armed popular revolt was never closer to victory than in the months between the end of 1937 and the beginning of 1939. In this period the British forces' control of Palestine weakened, the prestige of colonialism was at its lowest, and the reputation and influence of the revolt became the principal force in the country. 

However, at this time, Britain became more convinced that it would have to rely on Zionists who had provided them with a unique situation that they had never found in any of their colonies - they had at their disposal a local force which had common cause with British colonialism and was highly mobilised against the local population. 

At this time Britain began to be alarmed at the necessity of diverting part of its military forces to confront the ever more critical situation in Europe. Therefore Britain viewed with increasing favour "the rapid organisation of a Jewish volunteer defense force of 6,500 men already in existence."It had already gone some way in pursuing a policy of relying on the local Zionist force and handing over to it many of the tasks of repression, which were increasing. However, it did not destroy the bridge which it had always maintained with the class led by the Mufti, and it was in this field and at this time in particular that the British played a major role in maintaining the Mufti as the undisputed representative of the Palestinian Arabs. Their reserves of the leadership on the right of the Mufti were practically exhausted so that if the Mufti were no longer regarded as the sole leader, this would "leave no-one who can represent the Arabs except the leaders of the revolt in the mountains", as the British High Commissioner for Palestine said.89 There can be no doubt that this, among other reasons, contributed to keeping the Mufti at the head of the leadership of the Palestinian nationalist movement in spite, of the fact that he had left his place of refuge in the Aqsa Mosque in a hasty manner, and had been in Damascus since the end of January 1937. 

British oppression, which had escalated to an unexpected level, and the escalation of police raids, mass arrests and executions throughout 1937 and 1938 weakened the revolt but did not end it. The British had come to realise that both in essence and substance, and as regards its local leadership, it was a peasant revolt. As a result of this, the revolutionary spirit that prevailed throughout the whole of Palestine led to everyone in the towns wearing the peasant headdress (keffiya and agal) so that the countryman coming into the town should not be subjected to oppression by the authorities. Later, all were forbidden to carry their identity cards, so that the authorities should not be able to distinguish a townsman from a countryman. 

This situation indicates very clearly the nature of the revolt and its influence at that time. The countryside in general was the cradle of the revolt, and the temporary occupation of towns in 1938 was achieved after attacks by peasants from outside. This meant that it was the peasants and villagers in general who were paying the highest price. 

In 1938 a number of peasants were executed merely for being in possession of arms. A rapid glance at the list of the names of those who were sent to prison or to the gallows shows us that the overwhelming majority were poor peasants. For example, "all the inhabitants of the village of Ain Karem, three thousand in number, were sentenced to go ten kilometres every day to report to the police station."91 During that period Britain sentenced about 2,000 Palestinian Arabs to long terms of imprisonment, demolished more than 5,000 houses and executed by hanging 148 persons in Acre prison, and there were more than 5,000 in prison for varying terms.

Britain, which in November 1938 had abandoned the partition proposal recommended by the Peel Report, now started trying to gain time. The Round Table Conference held in London in February 1939 was a typical illustration of the dubious transaction that was going on silently all the time between the command of the Palestinian revolt and the British, who knew for certain that the command was prepared to bargain at any moment. Of course Jamal al-Hussaini did not go to the Round Table Conference in London alone; he was accompanied by representatives of the "independent" Arab countries. Thus the Arab regimes which were subject to colonialism were destined for the second time in less than two years to impose their will on the Arabs of Palestine through the identity (latent and potential) of interests of all those who sat around the Round Table in London. 

The speeches made by Jamal al-Hussaini, Amir Faisal (Saudi Arabia), Amir Hussein (the Yemen), All Mahir (Egypt) and Nuri al-Sa'id (Iraq), who declared that he was speaking as a close friend of Britain and who did not want to say a single word that might hurt the feelings of any Briton, because he was their friend from the bottom of his heart, only confirmed the success of the policy which Britain had for so long been carefully pursuing vis-a-vis the leadership of the Palestinian nationalist movement; it did not abandon it, and kept it constantly at the end of an open bridge. And the British were confident that Iraq and Saudi Arabia "were prepared to use their influence with the Palestinian leaders to put an end to the revolt and ensure the success of the Conference." 

However, the revolt in Palestine had not subsided (according to official figures, in February 1939, 110 were killed and 112 wounded in 12 engagements with the British, 39 villages were searched, curfews were imposed in three towns three times, about 200 villagers were arrested, there were fires in five government departments, ten Arabs were executed on charges of carrying arms, there were attacks on ten Zionist settlements, the oil pipeline was blown up; a train between Haifa and Lydda was mined, and a search post was set up in the Aqsa Mosque). 

The British figures presented by the Colonial Secretary show that "between 20th December and 29th February, there were 348 incidents of assassination, 140 acts of sabotage, 19 kidnappings, 23 thefts, nine mine and 32 bomb explosions, while the Army lost 18 dead and 39 wounded, and the Palestinians lost 83 dead and 124 wounded; these figures do not include casualties to the rebels. . "

Things continued in this way until September 1939, the month in which the Second World War broke out. In the meantime the Palestinian Arabs suffered irreplaceable losses; the leadership quite apart from the spirit of compromise that was afoot, was outside the country; the newly constituted local commands were falling one after the other on the various fields of battle, British oppression had reached its climax, and Zionist violence had been constantly escalating since the middle of 1937. There can be no doubt that the British concentrated presence and the persistence that accompanied it in the Palestinian theatre had exhausted the rebels, who, with their leadership, no longer really knew who they were fighting against or why. At one moment the leadership would talk of traditional friendship and common interests with Britain, at another went so far as to agree to the granting of autonomy to the Jews in the areas where they were settled. There can be no doubt that the vacillation of the leadership, and its inability to determine a clear objective to fight for, played its part in weakening the revolt. 

But this must not lead us to neglect the objective factor: the British used two divisions of troops, several squadrons of planes, the police, and the Transjordan Frontier Force, in addition to the six thousand strong quasi-Zionist force; all this was thrown in to gain control of the situation. (The Peel Commission admitted that security expenditure in Palestine had risen from PL 826,000 in 1935 to PL2,223,000 in 1936). 

This campaign of terrorism and the efforts that were made to cut the rebels' links with the villages, exhausted the revolt. The killing of Abd al-Rahim al-Hajj Muhammad in March 1939 came as a crushing blow to the revolt, depriving it of one of the bravest, wisest and most honest of the popular revolutionary leaders. After that the local commands started to collapse and leave the field. Moreover, the Franco-British rapprochement on the eve of the Second World War certainly made it easier to surround the rebels; Arif Abd al-Razzaq, worn out by hunger and pursuit, was handed over to the French, along with some of his followers; Jordanian forces arrested Yusuf Abu Daur and handed him over to the British, who executed him. Also British and Zionist terrorism in the villages had made people afraid to support the rebels and supply them with ammunition and food, and doubtless the lack of even a minimum of organisation made it impossible to surmount these obstacles. 

At the time the Palestinian Communist Party attributed the failure of the revolt to five principal causes: 

The absence of the revolutionary leadership; 

The individualism and opportunism of the leaders of the revolt. 

The lack of a central command for the forces of the revolt, 

The weakness of the Palestinian Communist Party. 

The inauspicious world situation.

On the whole, this is correct, but to these causes must be added the fact that the Communist Party was close to the leadership of Hajj Amin al-Hussaini, whom they viewed as "belonging to the most extremely anti-imperialist wing of the nationalist movement", while it regarded his enemies as "feudalist" traitors. And this in spite of the fact that the Mufti's group had absolutely no hesitation in liquidating leftist elements who tried to penetrate labour circles. 

The Communist left, in addition to being weak, was incapable of reaching the countryside; it was concentrated in certain towns. It had failed to Arabise the Party, as the Seventh Comintern Congress had recommended, and was still a victim of its restricted view of Arab unity, and of relations, as far as the struggle was concerned, with the rest of the Arab homeland, which had organisational repercussions, 

It is clear that the shortcoming that was mainly responsible for this defeat was the great gap caused by the rapid movement of society in Palestine which, as we have seen, was undergoing an extremely violent transformation from an Arab agricultural society into a Jewish industrial one. This was the real reason why the Arab nationalist bourgeoisie and petty-bourgeoisie did not play their historical role in the Palestinian nationalist movement at the time, and allowed the feudal religious leaders to lead this movement for a long period without rivals. 

Dr. Abd al-Wahhab al-Kayyali adds other important causes. "Weariness with fighting," he says, "constant military pressure, and the hope that some aspects of the White Paper would be applied, in addition to the lack of arms and ammunition, all played their part in making it difficult to continue the revolt. Moreover, in view of the fact that the world was on the brink of the Second World War, France suppressed the rebels' headquarters in Damascus." 

To all this we can add two important interconnected factors which can be discussed together, as they played a prominent role in frustrating the revolt. They are the attitude of Transjordan as embodied in the attitude of the subservient regime led by the Amir Abdullah, and the activity carried on by agents of the counter-revolution in the interior who were on the periphery of the terrorist activities of the British and Zionist forces. 

The Defence Party, led by Raghib Nashashibi, played the role of legal representative of the subservient Transjordan regime in the Palestinian nationalist movement. This link was probably a kind of camouflage because of the Party's inability to reveal the links of subservience which connected it with British colonialism in the midst of a battle in which the principal enemy was that same colonialism. Therefore the link with the regime in Transjordan was a sort of camouflage accepted by both sides. The Defence Party consisted of a small group of urban effendis who chiefly represented the interests of the rising comprador bourgeoisie and had begun to discover that its existence and growth depended on its being linked not only with British colonialism but also with the Zionist movement which controlled the industrial transformation of the Palestinian economy. Because of this class situation it is possible to sum up their history by saying that they "cooperated with the occupation authorities in the administrative field and with Zionism in the commercial field, sold land to the Jews, acted as brokers, disseminated misgivings, impeded nationalist activity, strengthened the link between Abdullah and Hussain and the Zionists in 1923-1924 supported immigration and the Mandate in the twenties and partition in the thirties, advocated the establishment of a Jewish national home in part of Palestine and the surrender of the other part to Transjordan ... etc."

While the Amir Abdullah of Transjordan was suppressing the Transjordanian mass movement which, on its own initiative, had decided at the popular conference held with Mithqal al-Faiz in the chair in the village of Umm al-Amd, to support the Palestinian revolt with men and material, the British decided to consider Transjordan as part of the field of action against the activities of the Palestinian rebels. 

The role played by the subservient Transjordan regime was not restricted to this; it closed the roads to Iraq to prevent any support arriving, and restricted the movements of the Palestinian leaders who, after the construction of the barbed wire entanglement along the northern frontier of Palestine, had been obliged to increase their activities from Transjordan. The regime's activities culminated in the arrest in 1939 of two Palestinian leaders. One of them, Yusuf Abu Durrar, was handed over to the British whereupon he was executed. 

At the time, the forces of the Transjordan regime were engaged side by side with the British troops and the Zionist gangs in hunting down the rebels. There can be no doubt that this role played by the Transjordan regime encouraged elements of the internal counter-revolution to step up their activities. A number of the Defence Party leaders took part in the establishment of what they called "peace detachments," small mercenary forces which were formed in cooperation with the English, and helped to hunt down the rebels, took part in engagements with them and evicted them from some of the positions they controlled. Fakhri al-Nashashibi was a leader of one of these divisions, in arming them and directing their activities ... this led to his being killed a few months after the end of the revolt. Before that, the savage British campaign to disarm the whole of Palestine had depended on "encouraging elements hostile to the Mufti to supply them (the British) with information and to identify rebels." The attitudes of Iraq and Saudi Arabia at that time were not much better than that of the Jordanian regime. At the London Conference they had expressed their readiness "to use their influence with the Palestinian leaders to put an end to the revolt." But all this could not make the leaders of the counter-revolution (the agents of the British) a force that had any weight with the masses. On the contrary, it strengthened the Mufti and his leadership, whereas the encouragement of counter-revolutionary elements was intended, among other things, to curb the Mufti and confine him within a field that could eventually be controlled. Throughout, the British acted in accordance with their conviction that al-Nashashibi could never be a substitute for the Mufti. 

The small marginal degree of manoeuvreability of the Mufti's command, which was the result of the minor disputes their in progress between French colonialism in Syria and Lebanon and British colonialism, was not capable of leading to a radical change in the balance of power, and it soon contracted to the point where it hardly existed at all on the eve of the War. 

These facts as a whole show that the Palestinian revolt was attacked and received blows in its three most vital points: 

The subjective point - meaning the incapacity, vacillation, weakness, subjectivity and anarchy of its various leaders. 
The Arab point - meaning the collusion of the Arab regimes to frustrate it at a time when the weak popular Arab nationalist movement was only interacting with the Palestinian revolt in a selective, subjective and marginal way. 

The international point.- meaning the immense disequilibrium in the objective balance of power which resulted from the alliance of all the members of the colonialist camp with each other and also with the Zionist movement, which was henceforward to have at its disposal a considerable striking force on the eve of the Second World War. 

The best estimate of Arab human losses in the 1936-39 revolt is that which states that losses in the four years totaled 19,792 killed and wounded; this includes the casualties sustained by the Palestinian Arabs at the hands of the Zionist gangs in the same period. 

This estimate is based on the first conservative admissions contained in official British reports, checked against other documents.102 These calculations establish that 1200 Arabs were killed in 1936. 120 in 1937, 1200 in 1938 and 1200 in 1939. In addition 112 Arabs were executed and 1200 killed in various terrorist operations. This makes the total of Arabs killed in the 1936-39 revolt, 5,032, while 14,760 were wounded in the same period. 

Detainees numbered about 816 in 1937, 2,463 in 1938, and approximately 5,679 in 1939. 

The real significance of these figures can be shown by comparisons. In relation to numbers of inhabitants, Palestinian losses in 1936-39 are equivalent to losses by Britain of 200,000 killed, 600,000 wounded and 1,224,000 arrested. In the case of America the losses would be one million killed, 3 million wounded and 6,120,000 arrested! 

But the real and most serious losses lay in the rapid growth of both the military and economic sectors which laid the foundations of the Zionist settler entity in Palestine. It is no exaggeration to say that this economic and military presence of the zionists, whose links with Imperialism grew stronger, established its principal foundations in this period (between 1936 and 1939) and one Israeli historian goes so far as to say that "the conditions for the Zionist victory had in 1948 been created in the period of the Arab revolt."

The general policy followed by the Zionists during this period can be seen in their profound determination to avoid any conflict between themselves and the mandatory authorities, even at a time when the latter, hard-pressed by the Arab rebels, were obliged to refuse some of the vigorous demands of the Zionist movement. 

The Zionists clearly knew that if they gave the British - who at the time had the strongest and most aggressive colonial army in the world - the chance to crush the Arab revolt in Palestine, this army would be doing a greater service to their schemes than they ever could have dreamed of. 

Thus the main Zionist plans ran along two parallel lines: the closest possible alliance with Britain - to the extent that the 20th Zionist Congress held in the summer of 1937, expressed its readiness to accept partition in its determination to conciliate Britain and avoid any clash with it. Such a policy was pursued so as to allow the colonialist empire to crush the Arab revolt that had broken out again that summer. 

The other line of their policy consisted of the continuous internal mobilization of Zionist settler society, under the slogan adopted by Ben Gurion at the time of "no alternative," which emphasized the necessity of laying the foundations of a military society and of its military and economic instruments. 

The question of the greatest possible conciliation with the British, in spite of the fact that they had, for example, taken steps to reduce Jewish immigration, was a pivotal point in the history of Zionist policy during that period, and in spite of the fact that there were in the movement certain elements that rejected what was called "self-control," the voice of this minority had no effect. The law that led the policies of the Zionists during that period was that summarized by Weizman who said: "There is a complete similarity of interests between the Zionists and the British in Palestine." 

During this period, cooperation and interaction between the two lines of policy: (1) alliance with the British mandate to the greatest possible extent, and (2) the mobilization of the Jewish settler society; had extremely important consequences. 

The Jewish bourgeoisie took advantage of the spread of the Arab revolt to implement many of the projects that they would not have been able to implement under different circumstances. Suddenly freed from the competition of cheap** Palestinian Arab agricultural produce, this bourgeoisie proceeded to take action to promote its economic existence. Naturally it was not possible to do this without the blessing of the British. 

During the revolt the Zionists and the mandatory authorities succeeded in building a network of roads between the principal Zionist colonies and the towns which were later to constitute a basic part of the infrastructure of the Zionist economy. Then the main road from Haifa to Tel-Aviv was paved, and the Haifa harbor was expanded and deepened, and a harbor was constructed at Tel-Aviv which was later to kill the port of Jaffa. In addition the Zionists monopolized contracts for supplying the British troops who had started to flood into Palestine. 

Fifty Zionist colonies were established between 1936 and 1939, and in between 1936 and 1938, Jews invested PL1,268,000 in building works in five Jewish towns, as against only PL120,000 invested by Arabs in 16 Arab villages in the same period. Jews also engaged extensively in the British security projects undertaken to absorb and employ large numbers of unemployed Jewish workers, who were constantly increasing in numbers on the frontiers of Palestine, for which "the British employed Jewish labor at a cost of PL100,000 to build"104 as well as dozens of other projects. 

Figures published later give us a more accurate idea: the value of exports of locally manufactured goods rose from PL478,807 in 1935 to nearly double that figure (PL896,875) in 1937, in spite of the revolt.105 This can only be explained by the greatly increased activity of the Jewish economy. 

The scope of this mobilization expanded from the economic field, in alliance with the Mandate, to the military field, in collusion with it. 

The British realized that their Zionist ally was qualified to play a role that no one else could play so well. In fact, Ben-Gurion is only telling part of the truth when he admits that the number of Jewish recruits in the quasi-police force armed with rifles rose to 2,863 in September 1936, for this was only a part of the Jewish force - there were 12,000 men in the Haganah in 1937, in addition to a further 3,000 in Jabotinski's National Military Organization.106 The alliance of these, as the real representatives of the Zionist movement, with British colonialism, led to the idea of a "Quasi-Police Force" in the spring of 1936. The idea served as a cover for the armed Zionist presence which enjoyed the blessing and encouragement of the British. 

This force served as a transition period for some months, during which the Haganah prepared to move, at the beginning of 1937, to a new stage. Not only were the British aware of this, they actually helped it to take shape. This stage consisted of forays by patrols and limited operations against the Palestinian Arabs, the main object of which was to distract and confuse them. It would have been quite impossible to advance to this stage and at the same time to maintain the "truce" (the alliance) with the Mandatory authorities had this not been the result of a joint plan. Ben Gurion affirms that the additional Zionist police farce made an ideal "framework" for the training of the Haganah.

In the summer of 1937 this force was given the name "Defense of the Jewish Colonies", which was later changed to "Colony Police". It was organised under the supervision of the British Mandate throughout the length and breadth of the country, and the British undertook to train its members. In 1937 it was strengthened with 3,000 new members, all of whom played a direct role in repressive operations against the Palestinian rebels, especially in the North. In June 1938 the British decided that offensive operations must be undertaken against the rebels. They therefore held instruction courses on this subject which provided training to large numbers of Haganah cadres, who later became cadres of the `Israeli' army. At the beginning of 1939, the British army organized ten groups of Colony Police into well armed groups, which were given Hebrew names. Members of this force were allowed to abandon the Qalbaq, the official headgear, for the Australian bush hat, to make them even more distinctive. These groups totalled 14,411 men, each being commanded by a British officer, who was assisted by a second in command appointed by the Jewish Agency. By the spring of 1939 the Zionists also had 62 mechanised units of eight to ten men each. 

In the spring of 1938 the British command decided to entrust to these Zionist elements the defense of railways between Haifa and Ludd that were blown up frequently by Palestinian commandos, and sent 434 members to execute this mission. However, only six months later the Jewish Agency had succeeded in raising their numbers to 800. This development was not only of service in the building up of Zionist military strength, but also helped to absorb and employ large numbers of unemployed Jewish workers, who were constantly increasing in numbers in the towns. In this ­way the Jewish proletariat was directed to work in repressive organizations, not only in British security projects directed against the revolt, but also in the Zionist military force. 

The foundations of the Zionist military apparatus were laid under British supervision. The Zionist force which had been'' entrusted with the defence of the Haifa-Lydda railway was later given the defence of the oil pipeline in the Bashan plain. This pipeline, which had been recently constructed (1934) to bring oil from Kirkuk to Haifa, had several times been blown up by the Palestinian rebels. 

This was of great symbolic value, The Arab rebels, who were aware of the value of the oil to the British exploiters, blew up the pipeline for the first time near Irbid on 15 July 1936. It was later blown up several times near the villages of Kaukab, Hawa. Mihna Israil, Iksal, and between at-Ufula and Bashan, and at Tell Adas, Bira, Ard al-Marj, Tamra, Kafr Misr, Jisr al-Majami, Jinjar, Bashan and Ain Daur. The British were unable to defend this vital pipeline, and admitted as much, that the "pipe" as the Palestinian Arab peasants called it, was enshrined in the folklore which glorified acts of popular heroism. 

At any rate, the British secured minimum protection for the pipeline in two ways. Inside Palestine it was defended by Zionist groups while in Jordanian territory the task of guarding it was given to "Shaikh Turki ibn Zain, chief of the Zain subdivision of the Bani Sakhr tribe, whom the company authorized to patrol the desert by any means necessary."109 

Ben Gurion almost reveals this fact directly when talking about British efforts to establish a Zionist Air Force, whose task was to be to safeguard these interests. 

The British in an early stage were able to see the strategy called by the Americans 30 years later "Vietnamization". This was extremely important, because it was this incident that strengthened Britain's conviction that the formation of a Zionist striking force would solve many problems connected with the defence of Imperialist interests accompanied by efforts to form a Zionist armed force to protect these interests. 

In this field the British officer Charles Orde Wingate played a prominent role in translating the British-Zionist alliance into practical action. Zionist historians try to give the impression that Wingate's efforts were the consequence of personal temperament and "idealistic" devotion. But it is clear that this intelligent officer, who was sent to Haifa by his chiefs in the autumn of 1937, had been entrusted with a specific task - the formation of the nuclei of striking forces for the Zionist armed force which had been in existence for at least six months, but which needed crystallisation and preparation. 

This British officer, whom "Israeli" soldiers regard as the real founder of the "Israeli" army, made the pipe-line problems his special task, However, this task led on to a series of operations involving terrorism and killing, and it was Wingate who took upon himself the task of teaching his pupils at Ain Daur - among whom was Dayan - to become an expert in such operations. 

There can be no doubt that, in addition to his qualifications as an experienced imperialist officer, Wingate was equipped with an unlimited racialist hatred for the Arabs. It is clear from the biographies written by those who knew him that he enjoyed killing or torturing Arab. peasants, or humiliating them in any way.

Through imperialists like Wingate, and through reactionary leaders of the type of the Amir Abdullah the British were making it possible for the Zionist movement to become at both military and economic levels, a beach-head to guard their interests. All this happened from the conviction of all concerned that the leadership of the Palestinian nationalist movement was not sufficiently revolutionary to enable it to stand up to these closely united enemies. 

In the midst of all this, the Palestinian nationalist movement, which had been paralysed by the subjective factors we have mentioned and the violent attacks launched both by the British and the Zionists, was in a difficult situation on the eve of the Second World War. The claims of some historians that the Arabs "stopped" their revolt to allow the British to wage its world war against Nazism, are naive, and refuted not only by the facts, but also by the fact that Hajj Amin al-Hussaini took refuge in Nazi Germany throughout the war. 

This picture as a whole represents the political and social map that prevailed through the years 1936-1939. It is this situation, with the dialectical relations involved in it, that explains the stagnation of the Palestinian nationalist situation throughout the war. When the war ended, the British found that the Palestinian nationalist movement had been pretty well tamed: its head was broken and scattered, its base had been weakened and its social fabric worn out and disintegrated as a result of the violent change that was taking place in society and of the failure of its leaderships and parties to organise and mobilise it and also as a result of the weakness and confusion of the left and the instability of the nationalist movement in the neighbouring Arab countries. 

Thus the Zionist movement entered the forties to find the field practically clear for it, with the international climate extremely favourable following the psychological and political atmosphere caused by Hitler's massacres of the Jews. While the Arab regimes in the neighbouring Arab countries were bourgeois regimes in the historical predicament without any real power. Nor was there in Jewish society in Palestine at that time any leftist movement to exert pressure in the opposite direction - practically the whole of this society was devoted to settlement through invasion. The Palestinian left had, with the Second World War, begun to lose the initiative with which it had started in the middle thirties, as a result of the change in Comintern policy, accompanied by the failure to Arabize the Party. What is more, the communist left was becoming more and more subject to repression by the defeated Arab leadership. (For example, the Mufti's men assassinated the trade unionist leader Sami Taha in Haifa on 12 September 1947 and before that, the assassination in Jaffa of the unionist Michel Mitri, who had played an important role in mobilizing Arab workers before the outbreak of the troubles in 1936). 

All this enabled the Zionist movement in the middle forties to step up its previously only partial conflict with British colonialism in Palestine, after long years of alliance. Thus in 1947 circumstances were favourable, for it to pluck the fruits of the defeat of the 1936 revolt which the outbreak of the war had prevented it from doing sooner. Thus the period taken to complete the second chapter of the Palestinian defeat - from the end of 1947 to the middle of 1948 - was amazingly short, because it was only the conclusion of a long and bloody chapter which had lasted from April 1936 to September 1939. 


Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed Pasha (15 January 1872-1963) was an Egyptian intellectual, anti-colonial activist, the first director of Cairo University. He was also one of the architects of modern Egyptian nationalism as well as the architect of Egyptian secularism and liberalism. He was fondly known as the Professor of the Generation. He was one of the fiercest opponents of pan-Arabism, insisting that Egyptians are Egyptians and not Arabs.

Lutfi was born to a family of land owners in the village of Berqin, near Al Senbellawein in the Dakahlia Governorate on 15 January 1872. He was educated at Al-Azhar University where he attended lectures by Muhammad Abduh. Abduh came to have a profound influence on Lutfi's reformist thinking in later years. Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed subsequently attended the School of Law from which he graduated in 1894.

In 1907, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed founded Egypt's first political party, el-Umma (the Nation), which came as a reaction to the 1906 Dinshaway Incident and the rise of Egyptian nationalist sentiment. He also founded the Umma Party newspaper, el-Garida, whose statement of purpose read: "El-Garida is a purely Egyptian party which aims to defend Egyptian interests of all kinds."

He was a member of the Egyptian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference held in Versailles in 1919, where he pleaded for the independence of Egypt from Britain.

Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed was also the first director of the Egyptian University, inaugurated on Monday 11 May 1925. He was a close friend of Taha Hussein, and resigned his post as university director as a protest against the Egyptian government's decision to transfer Hussein from his university position in 1932.[2] He resigned again in 1937 when the Egyptian police broke into the court of the Egyptian University. During his presidency of the Egyptian University, the first promotion of females graduated with a university degree.

In addition, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed held various positions such as the minister of education, the minister of interior, the director of the Arabic language assembly, and the director of House of Books. He died in 1963.



Arthur Goldschmidt Jr., is Professor Emeritus of Middle East History at Pennsylvania State University. He is (with Lawrence Davidson) the author of A Concise History of the Middle East, Eighth Edition, and is the author as well of Modern Egypt: Foundation of a Nation-State, Second Edition. He is the recipient of the Amoco Foundation Award for Outstanding Teaching and the 2000 Middle East Studies Association Mentoring Award. Goldschmidt has been known during his years at Penn State for having created a series of courses that stimulated undergraduate interest in Middle Eastern history and culture. Educated at Colby College and Harvard University, Goldschmidt has held fellowships from the Social Science Research Council and the Fulbright Faculty Research fund, among others. He is author of numerous books and many articles and essays on Middle Eastern history. He was an elected faculty senator, chaired its committee on student affairs and served as secretary. He chaired the Middle East Studies committee for 25 years. He also was instrumental in helping to devise courses in non-western history and in developing the successor to those courses for the general education curriculum.

In addition, he is one of the most respected authorities on Egypt's Modern history. Prof. Goldschmidt is a frequent contributor on the Internet, including the prestigious and oldest forum: Egypt Net.

For meaningful and serious discussions about the History of Modern Egypt,  join Egypt Net group (The oldest  continuous Egyptian forum on the internet since 1985.) 


© Kamal Katba 2010


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